The researcher is of the view that motivation is understood by individuals isolated ways; it can either be by enlarged fiscal exhaust, augmentation or better profession expects, acknowledgment from upper-class and superior administration or it can be individual improvement and progress.
The researcher refers to Pizza Hut’s Human Resource procedures as a centre of attention spot in the projected research. It is proposed to distinguish how the overall performance of the company depends on the proper management of the employees through motivation. Another belief of the researcher is that competition is in broad extrinsic because it cheers the performer to be successful and beat competitors and not to have the benefit of the fundamental rewards of the pursuit.
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1.1. Title of the Research Proposal:
An Investigation into Employee Motivation at Pizza Hut
1.2. Background to the organisation:
Pizza Hut is a multinational restaurant and delivery company which is established in America in 1958. Now pizza Hut is the leading company in the world as it has the highest number of outlets and the high percentage of market share. The company oversees more than 11,000 pizza restaurants and delivery stores in 90 countries all over the world.
Source: International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 21. St. James Press, 1998.
Pizza Hut constantly observes and supervises its employees and guarantees that they are contented with the strategies and any of the feedbacks are taken as a consideration for the policy and the services.
1.3 Importance of Research:
The research proposal is based on the employee motivation of an organization. Employee motivation is one of the major drivers of organizational performance. The importance of the proposed research is as follows:
1.3.1. Importance to organization:
The researcher will be able to identify that if the employees of an organization are highly motivated and optimistic they will do all the necessary works to accomplish the purpose of the organization as well as they will be keep going with any of the potential challenges. The researcher will also able to evaluate how the employee motivation effects to the stability of an organization.
1.3.2. Importance to academic body of knowledge:
The researcher believes that the completed research will provide academic benefits to all its users whether a management and non-management background. This research will provide the various theories and literature based on the employee motivation which governed at different stages and circumstances. If it is not so possible, the researcher is going to illustrate the best premises from the existing theories to execute an action plan for Pizza hut.
1.3.3. Personal importance:
At present the researcher works as a support manager of same organization accountable for convalescing and boosting employee motivations within the company. With this research, researcher feels to have a scope to generate the weekly reward system and structure an incentive plan for the crew members.
Apart from that the researcher has expanded a good perceptive of how the motivation is related with the theories and how the internal business runs. Most of all, the researcher learnt how to handle work force throughout the research proposal.
1.4. Research Objectives:
The purpose of research is to answers and to discover answers to research questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to search for truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet.
The researcher anticipates examining and distinguishing the followings:
To critically evaluate the existing literature on employee motivation
To identify distinct models that facilitate clarify matters on employee motivation
To analyze the reasons of employee de-motivation.
To examine the dynamic motivational enticements provided by Pizza Hut.
To develop an instructive theory that related confident aspects with the efficiency of the employee motivation.
To recommend proposal for improving employee motivation.
1.5. Research questions:
The researcher presumes that the proposed research will explore employee motivation features but there are also other surprising questions may appear. The proposed dissertation will look for the way out set up by the following questions:
What is the significance of employee motivation?
What does the inspiration of employee motivation necessitate?
How do the distinct theories of employee motivation correlate?
Why does employee motivation lead to successful organization?
What are the key factors that can enhance the motivation in Pizza Hut employees?
What are the main features Pizza Hut can take to move on employee motivation?
2. Literature Review:
A literature review utilizes as its database information of primary or original learning, and does not account new primary research itself. Cooper (1988),
Motivation can be defined as the psychosomatic method that provides activities function and way. In easy way to write that motivation is the internal power that drives persons to attain targets in both individual and professional. Kreitner (1995)
2.1. Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of Needs:
Abraham Maslow (1943) set up a pyramid which he called ‘essential needs’ supported in order to significance. Maslow (1943) as cited Kotler (2001) suggested that there is also a prospect that individuals may prefer to give up most of their needs, becoming sufferer for living with high ethical values.
According to the original and eventual and fundamental Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of needs, five human motivational needs are as follows:
Physiological and Biological Requirements: fundamental requirements for survival like hunger, desire and thirst, sensory satisfaction. Phychol (1941)
Safety Requirements: shelter from hurt or risk of danger or death, commandment, restrictions, strength, etc.
Social Requirements: also can be described as ‘love’ wants that means desire to offer and accept love, liking and affiliation, etc. Freud (1937)
Esteem Requirements: self-respect, realization, freedom, position, governance, reputation, executive accountability, etc. Goldstein (1939)
Self-Actualization Requirements: understanding individual aptitude, self- realization, looking for individual augmentation and knowledge.
It is not possible to encourage someone to reach his/her sales goal (level 4) when he is having struggles with his/her marriage (level 3). Similarly, it’s impossible to expect someone to be a team leader (level 3) while he/she is on his house re-possessing (level 2).
2.2. Bandura’s (1977) Self-Efficacy Theory:
In 1977, Albert Bandura hypothesized the Self-Efficacy theory which supports the principle that motivation and operation results are main causal features where an individual regards as he/she can achieve the job.
Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem – There is a minor dissimilarity among these terminologies: Self-efficacy means the capability to achieve a positive role; on the other hand self-esteem exposes the faith of individual’s personality.
Self-fulfilling Prophecy: People hold high self-efficacy will have the high assurance and be successful in satisfying and completing a given task successfully.
Goal-Difficulty: People who have high self-efficacy lean to appoint and unite challenging objectives.
Success Rate: Self-efficacy possibly will stalk from previous good performance or unsuccessful. When the new incentive plan will be introduced at Pizza Hut it should be seen from the better performance of employees from the past.
Goal-dedication: To pursue a certain goal there may difficult barrier arise but if the employees have high self-efficacy must exhibit high goal responsibility.
2.3. McGregor’s (1960) XY Theory:
The XY Theory was proposed by the famous psychologist Douglas McGregor in his book ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’ in 1960. McGregor was an American social psychologist, whose theory proposed a stage to expand optimistic administration approach and procedures, so that even today McGregor’s X-Y Theory is broadly used to obtain information for executive progress.
The managers who are in theory X group are expected to be oppressive. It is difficult to deal with the people who are in the group when they start to perform their job. When the theory deals with the employees, it is seen that they need continuous command, less responsibility, they are not determined, desires job safety and security.
The managers who are to this grouping are supposed to have ‘participative supervision’ approach. They seem to be centric administrators who have faith in hands-on attitude to daily concern.
This is the belief of the researcher that Pizza Hut will have more Y theory employees as well as managers to enhance the situation of the organization.
2.4. Adam’s Equity theory:
With the analysis of theories recommended by Maslow, Herzberg and other pioneers of workplace and behavioural psychologist, John Stacey Adams set out his Equity Theory in 1963.
Adams (1963) conferred his own understanding of an incentive -to- endeavour proportion by signifying that all employees provide their ‘inputs’ and receive ‘outputs’. Inputs are what are given into labour like allegiance, loyalty, gives up long working hours when needed. Outputs are all that is taken out in return like compensation, reward, acknowledgment etc.
The researcher deeply believes that the administration at pizza Hut should consistently interconnect to the employees and reveal company information, enquiries and other special offers as well as reward system among them.
2.5. Herzberg’s (1959) Two Factor Theory:
Frederick Herzberg is recognized with the creation of the two factors theory. Herzberg (1959) did his investigation among 200 engineers and accountants and was proficient to establish that satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work stalked from different aspects not from differing response.
The two factors theory is consisting of ‘hygiene’ and ‘motivational’ needs. Hygiene factor is also known as maintenance factors such as:
benefits of employee
Policy for company
Personal and professional life
Relation with others
Motivational needs are more fundamental by people such as:
From the theory, the researcher desires to force the point that there must be a great stability amid the hygiene and motivational requirements at Pizza Hut.
2.6. Vroom’s (1964) expectancy theory:
According to Vroom (1964), the motivation is subjective not only by prestige of a conclusion but an appraisal of its viability.
Calculation of probability of an effect being attained is in turn inclined by three things as follows:
Accessibility of the required conclusion
Individual confidence that a definite action will consequence in conclusion
Individual assurance that one has the capability to execute the necessary act effectively.
3.1. Academic Debate:
A main question stand to the research subject is why is Motivation so essential? Motivation is a composite purpose for executives to follow as McGregor’s (1960) XY theory but depends on the different categories.
Kovach (1987) monitored as at unique profession points motivation requirements are different. For example, while an employee is young and income enhance, money becomes less motivator whereas later exciting work becomes more of motivator.
Adam (1965) Equity Theory notified that when there is lack of gratitude in workplace, discrimination possibly will appear. On the other hand, Houran (2007) notified the initiation of small cluster enticement which cheers employees to give more ‘inputs’ as McGregor’s (1960) XY theory illustrates.
Martin (2001) in his pragmatic learning has augmented problems recruiting potential employees by following the right method of recruiting. While recruitment is done it is not expected that the employees will be automatically motivated.
3.2. Beyond the debate:
The theories which have been described are the shedding of motivation. Nonetheless the theories are followed; the most important factors are the fascinating work and intensive pay for the employee. The researcher understood that if there is the proper configuration in between individual and proficient objects, then employee motivation is an easy task.
There are other choices such as job improvement, enhancement, encouragement, fiscal and non-fiscal reward (e.g. identification) should be well thought-out. It may be really tough to moderate the reward system of an organization for all individuals but it is possible to formulate an acceptable method which is suitable for both employees and company.
4. Research Methodology:
Saunders et.al (2009) rationalized the methodology as the method of how research should be carried out. By means, methodology has been referred to the procedures and implementations used to attain and investigate data (Ibid).
4.1. Research Philosophy:
Research philosophy can be defined as the expansion of learning in a distinct subject and the characteristics of that learning. Saunders et.al (2009)
According to Saunders et.al (2009), there are three major types of research philosophy:
Epistemology can be sub divided into followings:
Positivism has a meaningful theoretical point of view which has the required reflection of data that is being taken. The existing theory will assist to bring about thesis. If data is been collected properly only then a research approach and strategy can be concluded wherein data can be collected.
This philosophical approach testifies that what is professed by the right mind and what is the truth, it is not driven by the existing theory or belief and individual assessment and imitations. However, Realism is only significant when data is accrued, evaluated and illuminated.
Interpretivism raises the thought that the communal issue is crucial to identify with the variation among human essence. It is known that each and every human creature is a social performer who interprets his/her basic and social wants and for the others which he/she can realize from the thought.
Ontology philosophical approach which overlays the way, as cited in Saunders et.al (2009), to the sufficiency of the learning gained by the overall investigation progress. The features of authenticity and the view how the process is carried out are more important in this philosophy.
Axiology is one type of philosophical approach which deals with the observations and evaluation conceded on human morals that are demonstrated to clarify that the research is done with the credibility.
4.2. Research Approach:
As the researcher ready decided the research philosophy he will adapt so it must be thought for the most appropriate research approach to be carried out the research.
According to Saunders et.al (2007), the major research approaches includes:
Deductive approach is what to test existing theory. The deductive approach inclines more to the positivism.
Saunders et.al (2009) which is cited by Robson (2002) hypothesizes that if the deductive approach is selected, there are 5 stages how the research will be carried out:
Investigating the association between conceptions or variables and then test the hypothesis.
The conceptions or variables will be calculated and then expressed in effective terminologies.
Testing of hypothesis.
Assessing the outcomes.
Acknowledge or modify the conceptions.
Inductive approach is necessarily more research oriented because here the researcher collects the data and critically analyzes and then develops a hypothesis from all the observations.
If the data is available and if the data is well interpreted then it is possible to make an knowledgeable appraisal about the projected research design.
Secondly, access of data can be very partial or sometimes totally impossible to access or may be the researcher does not have prior knowledge.
Easterby-Smith et.al (2002) cited in Saunders et.al (2009)
As the research objectives are formulated, the researcher must choose the deductive approach because of the existing data. The researcher considers that in deductive approach the data does exist and that is why the overall research will be quicker and smooth and the another reason for choosing deductive approach that the researcher feels that there is a low risk in this approach.
4.3. Research Strategy
As the deductive approach is chosen it is important to choose the similar research strategy to match.
There are some important research strategies include:
Ethnography and archival research
Source: Saunders et.al (2009)
From above research strategies the researcher feels that the most appropriate strategy will be the survey framing a questionnaire. The researcher will carry out the questionnaire with the data collected from the current employees at Pizza Hut within his store as well as the other.
5. Research Sampling:
The research will be focusing on the questionnaire based on the employees, support managers and the RGM. The employees who are in the restaurant and the delivery units will be the main focus. Sampling methods can be categorized as:
Saunders et.al (2009)
Probability or Representative Sampling: If the probability of each personal being taken from the complete personnel is known then it is called representative sampling. The probability sampling is perfect for survey and investigational research strategies.
Non Probability or Judgmental Sampling; If the probability of each personal being taken from the complete personnel is unknown then it is called judgmental sampling, this would be essential if it is used in a pilot survey.
From above sampling the researcher will be taking probability sampling for his research because the sample of his research is fully known.
6. Research Credibility:
The research is credible when there is less research is done in this precise part in the organization. Credibility depends on the faithfulness of the researcher that it is only be used for the academic purposes.
The most important factor is to believe that the variables which researcher has taken are appropriate for the specific research. Furthermore, the confidentiality for research work is also important and the anonymity is another part of research work. The researcher must acknowledge that the data he/she got from the participants, these will confident and no third party will be involved here.
Validity is all about determining if the generated outcomes are essentially true. There are some threats mentioned in Saunders et.al (2009):
The researcher must be concern when he will carry out the research. Furthermore, if the researcher wants to attain the data from every step, the employees may not like it and may be they will refuse to disclose. There should not be a specific time for the participants to complete the questionnaire.
There are some aspects have to be maintained:
Time management and choosing of right variables for the research.
The participants must not be prejudiced by higher authority, mystery should be there.
The questionnaire must be systematic and free of error.
The data collection must be correct even though there is any critical situation.
7. Time Horizon:
There are two well known methods are used traditionally for the studies of development are: Longitudinal or Cross sectional. However, both methods have advantages as well as disadvantages. Salkind (2004)
Longitudinal study is a relationship research study that necessitates frequent observations of the identical objects over an extent phase of time, where the time can be for 5 to 10 years or more. The Cross sectional study is a study that necessitates observations of all of inhabitants on a representative subset at a distinct time where the time can be 6 to 12 months.
The researcher will be using the cross sectional technique because the short period of time and the variables of the research is known. The longitudinal technique will not help the researcher because there is not so much time for the frequent observations of the identical matter as the participants will not be interested.
8. Data Collection:
Secondary research methods:
Secondary data refers to the data that has been collected by others for another purpose. The main advantage of collecting the secondary data is that it can save considerable time and effort as the data already exists.
Among secondary data, the following types of secondary will be examined-
Other relevant publication
Documentary secondary data
Survey based secondary data
Primary research methods
The objectives in conducting the primary research is to acquire new and the latest data in order to be processed into useful information to give solution to the research question. If the data collected does not meet the aspects of reliability and validity, the research will not get its credibility.
The researcher will choose both the methods because collecting secondary data is less time and money consuming and data is sustainable, authentic and reliable. Secondary data is innovative and easy for comparison and most importantly easy to access and available. Primary method is an effective as comments and responses can be attained by applying less effort, time and money.
9. Ethical Issues:
Ethics while the research is carrying out is linked with the overall process that the way research topic is chosen, intended, the data collection methods, data analyzing process and stored all through the credibility and fairness.
The researcher is going to go behind his own regulations of ethics which will a classical model are as follows:
Privacy of participants
Participant’s ability to withdraw partially or completely from the research
Confidential maintenance of data given to protect anonymity
Participant’s should be comfortable while sharing information
Researcher’s right to safety
Respecting target sample
Right to anonymity
No risk of harm
Source: Saunders et.al (2009)
10. Data Access and Resource Implication:
The researcher kept in his mind while choosing the objectives and the questions that where he can gain access the data. The proposal should be on that particular area where the researcher has the access to the essential data to complete a successful dissertation. Naom(2007).
The researcher will use all sources of data which will have the availability of access to complete the research. The data will be collected from various academic books, articles, journal etc. The data also will be collected from the various internet search engine, e-journal, articles etc. Another important source is from the organisation’s website. Collection of data is through direct survey, averages in order to get perfect data directly from the employees.
In terms of expenses all the elements will be reasonably priced and the researcher will try to keep all the costs as low as possible. Because of the interview will be taken in store so there will be no expense for this.
11. Action Plan
1. Academic Knowledge
2. Topic Selection
3. Firm up Objectives and questions
4. Research Literature
5. Write Literature Review
6. Write Methodology
7. Prepare Questionnaire
8. Pilot Questionnaire & Refine
9. Administer Questionnaire/ Collect Data/ Analyse Data
10. Write Findings
11. Write discussion/ Conclusion/ Recommendation
12. Reflective review
13. Proof Reading
14. Turn it in and Print & Binding
15. Submit Dissertation
Bandura, A. (1977). Self efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioural change.
Cooper H. M. (1988). ‘The structure of knowledge synthesis’ Knowledge in Society, vol. 1, pp. 104-126
Freud, A (1937), The ego and the mechanisms of defence, Hogarth, London
Goldstein, K (1939), The Organism, American Book Company, New York.
Kotler, Armstrong, Saunders, Wong (2001): Principles of Marketing, Prentice Hall
Kreitner, R. (1995). Management, 6th Edition, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Martin, Samuel (2001). “Secrets of Employee Motivation”, Journal of the American Chiropractic Association.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, July 1943. 370-396.
Phychol. Bull(1941), The experimental analysis of appetite, p 129-164
Salkind N J (2004). An Introduction to Theories of Human Development, SAGE
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2007) Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, p. 108, 119, 124, 127, 140-142, 155-160,
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