The hospitality industry consists of broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, restaurants, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism industry. The hospitality industry is a several billion dollar industry that mostly depends on the availability of leisure time and disposable income. A hospitality unit such as a restaurant, hotel, or even an amusement park consists of multiple groups such as facility maintenance, direct operations (servers, housekeepers, porters, kitchen workers, bartenders, etc.), management, marketing, and human resources.
The hospitality industry covers a wide range of organizations offering food service and accommodation. The hospitality industry is divided into sectors according to the skill-sets required for the work involved. Sectors include accommodation, food and beverage, meeting and events, gaming, entertainment and recreation, tourism services, and visitor information.
Hospitality is the relationship between guest and host, or the act or practice of being hospitable. Specifically, this includes the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers, resorts, membership clubs, conventions, attractions, special events, and other services for travelers and tourists.
A manager’s primary challenge is to solve problems creatively. While drawing from a variety of academic disciplines, and to help managers respond to the challenge of creative problem solving, principles of management have long been categorized into the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (the P-O-L-C framework). The four functions, summarized in the P-O-L-C figure, are actually highly integrated when carried out in the day-to-day realities of running an organization. Therefore, you should not get caught up in trying to analyze and understand a complete, clear rationale for categorizing skills and practices that compose the whole of the P-O-L-C framework.
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It is important to note that this framework is not without criticism. Specifically, these criticisms stem from the observation that the P-O-L-C functions might be ideal but that they do not accurately depict the day-to-day actions of actual managers. The typical day in the life of a manager at any level can be fragmented and hectic; with the constant threat of having priorities dictated by the law of the trivial many and important few. However, the general conclusion seems to be that the P-O-L-C functions of management still provide a very useful way of classifying the activities managers engage in as they attempt to achieve organizational goals.
Front desk manager (General Manager ? Front desk manager ? Front desk staff)
? Create and produce reports as required.
? Coordinate schedules, payroll and expenses to meet or fall below budget.
? Participates in property initiatives.
? Ensure that guest data and management reporting is processed efficiently and accurately while maintaining proper security standards.
? Ensure that all accounting transaction and cash handling procedures are in compliance.
? Relive front office departments for breaks/lunches.
? Conduct regular monthly meetings with members of the Front Office and Communication Team to address current initiatives, projects and long term goals.
? Pro actively identify potential guest issues.
? Assist housekeeping in day-to-day activities.
? Recruit, hire, train and retain associates for all supervised departments.
? Develop monthly training items to foster development and cross training with other departments.
? Perform associate evaluations, provide coaching and development.
? Monitor guest satisfaction processes, and respond to guest concerns, and inquiries.
Housekeeping manager (General Manager ? housekeeping manager? housekeeping staff)
? Manage the day-to-day activities of the housekeeping department.
? Plan, schedule, and organize work to ensure proper coverage.
? Communicate and enforce policies and procedures.
? Ensure all staff are properly trained and have the tools and equipment needed to effectively carry out their respective job duties.
? Develop and implement procedures for managing quality of housekeeping and laundry services.
? Control expenses within all areas of housekeeping.
? Participate in the preparation of the annual departmental operating budget and financial plans which support the overall objectives of the hotel.
? Conduct pre-shift meeting and review all information pertinent to the day’s activities.
? Establish par levels for supplies and equipment.
? Replenish shortages and other business supplies for daily business.
? Promote teamwork and quality service through daily communication and coordination with other departments.
? Assist with deep cleaning projects and assist housekeeping staff during unanticipated rush periods.
Food and Beverage manager (General Manager ? FNB manager ? FNB staff)
? Check that sufficient table linen, food and sundry items have been requisitioned for service periods and that buffer stocks are maintained.
? Allocate jobs and ‘stations’, monitoring the completion of tasks – before, during and following service periods.
? Ensure the restaurant is cleaned and fully prepared ready for service – checking table layouts, sideboards, buffets, special displays etc.
? Check buffet food levels are maintained during service, according to customer demand.
? Greet, seat, take orders, assist guests with food and wine selection. Check customer satisfaction during service.
? Liaise with the kitchen, for menu content, special customer requests, queries and complaints/compliments.
? Promote the menu and ‘special offers’.
? Ensure all post-service tasks are completed (e.g. unused foods/dishes/drinks are returned to kitchen, bar or cellar).
? Assist with planning and organizing of special functions/seasonal events/projects.
? Complete required administrative functions (e.g. customer bills, reports, time sheets) and assist with annual budget preparation.
? Ensure effective security of keys and property – company, guest and personal.
? Deal with lost property.
? Challenge and report any person acting suspiciously.
? Display and encourage a high level of personal hygiene, customer care courtesy and social skill.
? Assist guests and promote the hotel’s other facilities and services.
Function of the hospitality manager
Then term management refers to the process of ensuring employees work together efficiently and effectively to achieve the goals set by the organization in which they work.
Managing physical and human resources to achieve an organization’s customer service goals requires managers to be able to effectively plan, organize, lead and control.
Four function of the hospitality manager: (POIC)
Planning is the function of management that involves setting objectives and determining a course of action for achieving those objectives. Planning requires that managers be aware of environmental conditions facing their organization and forecast future conditions. It also requires that managers be good decision makers.
Planning is a process consisting of several steps. The process begins with environmental scanning which simply means that planners must be aware of the critical contingencies facing their organization in terms of economic conditions, their competitors, and their customers. Planners must then attempt to forecast future conditions. These forecasts form the basis for planning.
Planners must establish objectives, which are statements of what needs to be achieved and when. Planners must then identify alternative courses of action for achieving objectives. After evaluating the various alternatives, planners must make decisions about the best courses of action for achieving objectives. They must then formulate necessary steps and ensure effective implementation of plans. Finally, planners must constantly evaluate the success of their plans and take corrective action when necessary.
– To guide their employees
– To achieve their goals
– Short-term plan
Organizing is the function of management that involves developing an organizational structure and allocating human resources to ensure the accomplishment of objectives. The structure of the organization is the framework within which effort is coordinated. The structure is usually represented by an organization chart, which provides a graphic representation of the chain of command within an organization. Decisions made about the structure of an organization are generally referred to as organizational design decisions.
Organizing also involves the design of individual jobs within the organization. Decisions must be made about the duties and responsibilities of individual jobs, as well as the manner in which the duties should be carried out. Decisions made about the nature of jobs within the organization are generally called ‘job design’ decisions.
Organizing at the level of the organization involves deciding how best to departmentalize, or cluster, jobs into departments to coordinate effort effectively. There are many different ways to departmentalize, including organizing by function, product, geography, or customer. Many larger organizations use multiple methods of departmentalization.
Organizing at the level of a particular job involves how best to design individual jobs to most effectively use human resources. Traditionally, job design was based on principles of division of labor and specialization, which assumed that the more narrow the job content, the more proficient the individual performing the job could become. However, experience has shown that it is possible for jobs to become too narrow and specialized. For example, how would you like to screw lids on jars one day after another, as you might have done many decades ago if you worked in company that made and sold jellies and jams? When this happens, negative outcomes result, including decreased job satisfaction and organizational commitment, increased absenteeism, and turnover.
– Need to be allocated to individuals on the service team.
– This is known as task analysis.
– Ensure that every task is performed effectively and efficiently.
– Develop an organization chart and allocating duties.
– Make sure that enough trained staff on duty.
– Inadequate staffing is a frequent cause of customer dissatisfaction.
Leading involves the social and informal sources of influence that you use to inspire action taken by others. If managers are effective leaders, their subordinates will be enthusiastic about exerting effort to attain organizational objectives.
The behavioral sciences have made many contributions to understanding this function of management. Personality research and studies of job attitudes provide important information as to how managers can most effectively lead subordinates. For example, this research tells us that to become effective at leading, managers must first understand their subordinates’ personalities, values, attitudes, and emotions.
Studies of motivation and motivation theory provide important information about the ways in which workers can be energized to put forth productive effort. Studies of communication provide direction as to how managers can effectively and persuasively communicate. Studies of leadership and leadership style provide information regarding questions, such as, ‘What makes a manager a good leader?’ and ‘In what situations are certain leadership styles most appropriate and effective?’
– Giving instructions or telling and showing people what to do.
Controlling involves ensuring that performance does not deviate from standards. Controlling consists of three steps, which include establishing performance standards, comparing actual performance against standards, and taking corrective action when necessary. Performance standards are often stated in monetary terms such as revenue, costs, or profits but may also be stated in other terms, such as units produced, number of defective products, or levels of quality or customer service.
The measurement of performance can be done in several ways, depending on the performance standards, including financial statements, sales reports, production results, customer satisfaction, and formal performance appraisals. Managers at all levels engage in the managerial function of controlling to some degree.
The managerial function of controlling should not be confused with control in the behavioral or manipulative sense. This function does not imply that managers should attempt to control or to manipulate the personalities, values, attitudes, or emotions of their subordinates. Instead, this function of management concerns the manager’s role in taking necessary actions to ensure that the work-related activities of subordinates are consistent with and contributing toward the accomplishment of organizational and departmental objectives.
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Effective controlling requires the existence of plans, since planning provides the necessary performance standards or objectives. Controlling also requires a clear understanding of where responsibility for deviations from standards lies. Two traditional control techniques are budget and performance audits. An audit involves an examination and verification of records and supporting documents. A budget audit provides information about where the organization is with respect to what was planned or budgeted for, whereas a performance audit might try to determine whether the figures reported are a reflection of actual performance. Although controlling is often thought of in terms of financial criteria, managers must also control production and operations processes, procedures for delivery of services, compliance with company policies, and many other activities within the organization.
The management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are widely considered to be the best means of describing the manager’s job, as well as the best way to classify accumulated knowledge about the study of management. Although there have been tremendous changes in the environment faced by managers and the tools used by managers to perform their roles, managers still perform these essential functions.
– Check that everything for they are responsible is on track.
– Carefully balance these functions, the controlling process.
– Eventually reveal that things are going wrong.
In my opinion, any function of manager must included four main functions, planning, organizing, leading, controlling. Even different type of manager has their own function; their main function is same with others, such as: front desk manager control his/her staff working process and eventually reveal that things are going wrong, this is same with housekeeping manager control his/her housekeeper working process if they do anything wrong, housekeeping manager must correct it.
Q2. List down any dining restaurant and explain what were the operations strategy and the new challenges for future growth.
The term Fine Dining brings to mind all kinds of images, from crisp white table cloths to waiters in tuxedos. Fine dining, just as the name suggests, offers patrons the finest in food, service and atmosphere. It is also the highest priced restaurant you can operate. While you may bring in mucho bucks with a fine dining restaurant you will also pay out more money than if you were running a more casual restaurant, such as a diner or caf’. There are three main areas of focus with a fine dining restaurant: the menu, service and atmosphere.
Fine Dining Restaurant Business Plan
Gabri’s Restaurant & Lounge
Our competitive edge is the menu, the chef, the environment, the management, the service and our friendly place! We will have an international menu and our food will be made with the freshest ingredients and produce available. The chef has an excellent taste for what fine dining is and requires. Our environment is elegant and comfortable and our decor is warm and relaxing. Great service is very important to us. The management and servers will handle every detail to make customer’s special evening even more special! All this and our great atmosphere will make customers want to come back again and again!
The total population in New Jersey is 8,414,350 people.
615,301 people live in Monmouth County, 50% between 25-55 years old. That is the age group that dines out two to three times a week and spends an average $795 a month on food and drinks.
There are 224,447 households in Monmouth County and an average 2.7 persons per household. The median family income in Monmouth County averages, $64,271/year. There are 636 registered businesses in Long Branch with 7,885 employees.
We mention that there are over 200,000 Scandinavians living in New Jersey and most of them live within 30 miles of Long Branch. We will be serving some Swedish cuisine as there is no Scandinavian restaurant in New Jersey.
Our primary customer base is from Long Branch, West Long Branch, Monmouth Beach, Rumson, Little Silver, Middletown, Red Bank, Shrewsbury, Deal, Eatontown, Freehold, Oceanport, Allenhurst, & Asbury Park.
Our sales plan is to establish and maintain position with our local customers. The strategy is to build more customers in order to increase revenue. A sale in our business is client service. It is repeat business. We will focus on making all our customers happy with our food, service and entertainment options.
Our strategy in the restaurant is to have an experienced staff that knows the food, wine and liquor. We will train every new employee so they will fit in with Gabri’s concept, which is “Wonderful food, reasonably-priced wine and knowledgeable service in an outstanding atmosphere.”
No one attempt a business anticipating failure, however sometimes ventures do not fulfill their promise.
We at Gabri’s are committed to our concept and its viability. In the event that our venture cannot achieve profitability and retire the encumbrances; we will first attempt to sell the operation and use the proceeds to clear all outstanding balances. If we are unable to sell the operation for sufficient proceeds we will forced to default whereby the SBA loan will be in senior standing. Any further outstanding balances will be borne by the investors on a weighted percentage basis of the total amounts due in bankruptcy proceedings.
New challenge for future growth
The financial plan depends on important assumptions, most of which are shown in the following table as annual figures. The key underlying assumptions are:
? We assume a slow-growth economy, without major recession.
? We assume that there are no unforeseen changes in the expectancy in the popularity of our restaurant.
? We assume access to investments and financing are sufficient to maintain and fulfill our financial plan as shown in the tables.
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Plan Month 1 2 3
Current Interest Rate 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
Long-term Interest Rate 7.00% 7.00% 7.00%
Tax Rate 34.58% 35.00% 34.58%
Other 0 0 0
Their strategy is simple; they intend to succeed by giving people a combination of excellent and interesting food in an environment that appeals to a wide and varied group of successful people. They will focus on maintaining quality and establishing a strong identity in their community. Their main focus in marketing will be to increase customer awareness in the surrounding communities. Their will direct all of their tactics and programs toward the goal of explaining who they are and what they do. They will keep their standards high and execute the concept so that word-of-mouth will be their main marketing force.
Their will create an appealing and entertaining environment with unbeatable quality at an exceptional price. An exciting and friendly restaurant, they will be the talk of the town. Therefore, the execution of their concept is the most critical element of their plan. All menu items are moderately priced for the area. While they are not striving to be the lowest-priced restaurant, they are aiming to be the value leader.
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