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History Of The Sri Lankan Problem Sociology Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Sociology
Wordcount: 2788 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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The Tamil people have been fighting for independence from Sri Lanka since 1973 when an island-wide pogrom (the most violent of several that had regularly occurred since 1956) convinced Tamils that they would not attain equality or security under the Sinhala-chauvinist state that has ruled Sri Lanka since independence in 1948, Before the British entranced to the Sri Lanka, there was two independent states, one is Tamil and another one is Sinhala but after the ruled of British those states combine together and when they left from Sri Lanka they handed all the power to the Sinhala state.

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If we see the violence in Sri Lanka against the Tamils, in the lead-up to the 1956 elections, the Buddhist clergy launched a racist anti-Tamil movement that culminated in the first pogrom against Tamils. It also proved that the clergy could swing elections and secured their position in the political elite. Following the 1956 elections, laws were enacted making Sinhala the only official language. This excluded most Tamils from public sector employment and torture, rape and random killings have been perpetrated by the military and pro-government paramilitaries.

This violence continued year by year and so many innocent Tamil people were affected horribly and so many Tamil people left their own places and they went to other countries as refugees.

In this stage, “Mr.Prabhakaran, who has born in 1954 and got great angry against the violence on Tamils, founded the first Tamil protest movement in 1973. The grievances of this Tamils minority went back to 1956 when a new law imposed Sinhala as the country’s official language. He came from well educated family, he dropped his studies in his age 16 and created a rebel group with his friends which fight against for the discrimination of Tamils because he found one true from his own experience, that if we get afraid and never show ours against in their way to their violence, they never stop that until the last Tamil death.

Another historical sad example for the genocide of Tamils in Sri Lanka is “Black July” in 1983,

“Smoke from hundreds of shops, offices, warehouses and homes blew idly over Colombo yesterday. Any business, any house belonging to or occupied by a Tamil has been attacked by gangs of goondas and the resulting destruction looks like London after a heavy night’s attention from the Luftwaffe. The sharp smell of destruction fills the nostrils and the roads beneath the feet crunch with broken glass. Cars and Lorries lie at ungainly angles across the footways. In Pettah, the old commercial heart of the city, row after row of sari boutiques, electronic dealers, rice sellers, car parts stores, lie shattered and scarred… government officials yesterday estimated that 20,000 businesses had been attacked in the city.”

-The Guardian 28 July 1983-

“The riots began in retaliation for an ambush of an army patrol in Jaffna that left thirteen Sinhalese soldiers dead. The army immediately retaliated by randomly killing a number of innocent civilians in the Jaffna peninsula. This followed by an extensively organised anti-Tamil riot which initially started in Colombo and soon spread to southern part of Sri Lanka where ever the Tamils lived. Sinhalese rioters in Colombo were provided with voter’s lists containing details of names and addresses to enable them to specifically target the Tamil Community. The police, security forces, Buddhist monks and the State Officials turned a blind eye but encouraged the mobs and in some cases they themselves actively took part in the carnage.

Mobs of angry Sinhalese roamed the streets targeting properties and businesses owned by the Tamils. They chased down and beat any vulnerable people they could find. This lasted for several days and claimed the lives of over 3,000 Tamils. Over 50 Tamils political prisoners were butchered by the fellow Sinhalese inmates and the prison guards”.

-Genocide Org July 2008-

And following are some evidence about Sinhala majority people’s opinion about Tamil’s rights in country, some of the most famous racist quotes by the Sinhalese politicians:

“If we are governing, we must govern. If we are ruling, we must rule. Do not give into the minorities. ” – Mrs. Wimala Kananga M.P. Sri Lankan Parliament, July 1981

“I am not worried about the opinion of the Tamil people… now we cannot think of them, not about their lives or their opinion.. The more you put pressure in the north, the happier the Sinhala people will be here… Really if I starve the Tamils out, the Sinhala people will be happy.” – President J.R. Jayewardene, Daily Telegraph 11th July 1983

“They want a separate state – a minority community which is not the original people of the country, etc.” (Saying that Tamils do not belong in Sri Lanka) – President Chandrika Kumaratunga in an interview on South African TV, September 1998

Not only in those ways, but also in other ways “like denied prospects of Tamil student’s higher education by standardisation, even though they obtained higher marks than Sinhala students they were not able to entered university and Sinhala students entered university easily even they obtained lower marks than Tamils according to that system” Tamils affected and they lost their independence and culture.

After these problems raised against to Tamils and the failure of peacefully protest by Tamils politicians and the death of Mr.Thileeban by hunger strike for the Tamils rights and safety, Tamils understood that there was no option except Independent Tamil Nation to Tamils. After that they accept the way of Mr.Prabhakaran, and started to give their hand to his activities and 90% of Tamils think him as their godfather who comes to save and bring freedom to them.

After the death of Mr. Thileeban arm struggle start severely with the Tamils support. Most rebel armies rely on a state sponsor. Mr.Prabhakaran’s, however, had no such ally. Instead, his guerrillas obtained money and guns from a global support network run by the Tamil Diasporas.

So many younger Tamils joined in the LTTE with their own wish of bringing freedom to their people in their own place. And some people were joined in a compulsory after 2006 because of the fear on LTTE. There was chid soldier also, but they gave education to their child soldiers and made them as doctors and lawyer, etc for their own medical needs in war periods and political activities. All those happened under the words of Mr.Prabhakaran, even he didn’t study he had vast knowledge in all fields through his reading habits and eager to know new things, that is really miracle to the world today also. He was famous by his discipline behaviour. Still no one complained about his fighter in discipline matters, because his punishments were severe to people who failed to keep discipline in their life even they were fighter. He gave equality to the female fighters in all decision makings like males.

If we see the violence activities of LTTE under the control of Mr.Prabhakaran against to the government from starting, uniquely in the annals of guerrilla campaigns, his bloodstained efforts embraced every form of warfare, ranging from large scale battles to the ambushes of classic insurgency tactics, to urban terrorism, complete with suicide bombings.

Since 1977s LTTE start violence against Sri Lankan forces. In July 1983 first big attack against Sri Lankan army that is known as Thirunelveli attack. Mid of 80’s the LTTE controlled most part of the North and east of Sri Lanka. At that period the Sri Lankan forces faced high trouble when they try to enter to the LTTE controls area.

1987 July Sri Lankan army forces started a military operation has known as “operation liberation”, at that time LTTE introduced suicide attack. By this suicide attack defeat Sri Lankan army with small lost.

From that time LTTE used suicide attackers known as “Karumpulikal” (Black Tigers) when they got trouble. They used black tigers for destroy military, political and economic targets, the LTTE had land, sea and air black tigers.

In 1987 Indian army entered to Sri Lanka as peace keeping force. But the Indian army wasn’t being honest. By this LTTE moved to another way of freedom fighting by hunger strike. One of LTTE member name Mr.Thileeban died for that after 12days hunger strike. This is not workout for Indian army so LTTE started violence against Indian army. Because of this cheatings, the former Indian Prime Minister Mr. Rajeevkandi killed by LTTE suicide bomber.

Mr.Prabhakaran’s fighters were ruthless practitioners of suicide attacks. In 1996, they drove a lorry packed with explosives into Sri Lanka’s central bank, killing at least 90 people. That target was for the Sri Lankan economy.

In 1997 they fighting against the longest military operation in south Asia known as “Operation Jaisikkuru” it’s taken more than one and half years. Then they capture areas again within few days. In 2001 July black tigers attacked Sri Lankan international airport and Sri Lankan air force camp within few hours. By this attacked international consider about Sri Lankan Tamils problem.

Analysis about the Leadership of Mr.Prabhakaran According to the Problem:

Under the Mr.Prabhakaran control there were nearly 60000 to 70000 soldiers, but nearly 35000 soldiers died in war activities and nearly 10000 soldiers were injured during the war period. He divided all fighters by group by group for different purposes. For example one groups for political movements, one for intelligence activities another group for fighting. His LTTE is the first rebel group who have air, sea and land forces without any country support and with only over sea’s Tamils support.

If leaders failed to fulfil the needs of their people or failed to give security to their life and culture, they won’t support to them in a long period in reality. If we see the Mr.Prabhakaran life, he started violence for his people from 1976, from that period his supporters’ rate not decreased, only increased by his group’s discipline activities and the secure to their culture by him. That’s why in Tamils 90% people support him and accept him as a one and only leader to them.

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He never thought about his personal life he thought only about his people future, to that purpose he founded so many good steps, he started Tamil School Culture in all country all over the world, and in Sri Lanka also he proved that we can ruled ourselves to us in the period of some place were in under his control. He founded orphanages to the children who lost their parents in war in the name of “Sencholai”. We cannot deny the fact that the Sri Lankan government destroy that place and killed those children by air force. That time most of the countries said against to Sri Lankan government.

LTTE went so many ceasefires with the Sri Lankan government, but Sri Lankan government was not ready to give rights to Tamils correctly in their places, their target was only bring Mr.Prabhakaran to their side by give some personal advances to him. But Mr.Prabhakaran was not ready to accept that, he was ready to sacrifice his life for Tamils and he was not ready to sacrifice Tamils life for his personal welfare. That’s why all ceasefires broke down in half way.

Although so many countries barred the LTTE as terrorist group, no one talked about Mr.Prabhakaran and LTTE discipline and sacrifices.

“If JR is a great Buddhist, we do not want get arms”, this is one of the statements of Mr.Prabhakaran, that means even Buddhist torture Tamils, Mr.Prabhakaran kept good thinking about Buddhist and he was not taken arm with wish.

Judgements about Mr.Prabhakaran According to the Moral Theories:

Utilitarianism (Consequence based) Theory:

This theory is come to judgement right or wrong according to the balance of their good or bad consequences.

According to that theory Mr.Prabhakaran way was right even he did some mistakes in his decision making like accept the child soldiers and attacked Sinhala people by bomb in several times as revenge.

In Sri Lanka that attacks were necessary to save Tamil people, because the government was minimise their attacks on innocent Tamils only after their revenge activities on Sinhala areas.

In Sri Lanka, before starting violence type fight, Tamil politicians and even LTTE also were protest peacefully in so many periods and gave their life to that peace protest by hunger strike but no one ready to accept their even basic request and they continue their torture and rape on Tamils with the help of Indian forces in 1987.

According to the statement that “Our fighting way will be decided by our enemy” they took arms to fight against the Sri Lankan government to safe guard their people.

So in my point of view, Mr.Prabhakaran way was correct in that time as a leader to that community. If he failed to take that way, today may be no Tamils in Sri Lanka, because after LTTE defeated, within few months most of time Sinhala shown their own face.

Even famous Tamil politicians said only the god can safe Tamils, Mr.Prabhakaran only the man who start the fights with brave without any major supports in beginning to safe guard their people.

Kantianism (Obligation based) Theory:

This theory is telling that “the moral worth of an individual’s action depends exclusively on the rule of obligation on which the person acts”. According to that theory there were some wrong side also in Mr.Prabhakaran leadership like killing Sinhala people as revenge and to stop violence against Tamils.

According to that theory he was not have rights to kill others. In other side there were no rights to Sri Lankan government to discriminate Tamils and their basic rights.

Another wrong thing about Mr.Prabhakaran is according to rules of this theory, compulsory soldier taking, and child soldier and displaced the Muslims and Sinhalese from North, East in Sri Lanka.

Liberal Individualism (Rights based) Theory:

This theory about the rights that have individual to receive a one’s choice and to be free from some action by others, that means “individual and group have rights -justified claims that individual can make upon other individuals or upon society”.

According to this theory Mr.Prabhakaran way is right, because he fight for his community rights. And he chose the way because of no option without that, he justified claims the violence against the Tamils on behalf of Tamil community.

Communitarianism (Community based) Theory:

This theory is telling that “Everything fundamental in ethics derives from communal values, the common good, social goals, traditional practices and cooperative virtues”. According to this theory “An action’s moral value can be judged based on its positive or negative effects on society’s well-being as a whole”.

This is the most suitable theory in Sri Lankan problem, because in most of cases Mr.Prabhakaran followed this theory and claimed the judgment to his community according to that moral theory and he lives as moral leader according to that theory.

If we see the problem deeply, one thing will be noticed easily that the problem a rise because of discrimination on particular community, that is why one member (Mr.Prabhakaran) of the community who got anger and who have brave to give sound against to the discrimination started fight against to the Sri Lankan government. Because of that fight so many lose took part in both side but that loses helped to save the certain community for long term with miner loses.

That means there were some negative effects but that effects also the steps to Tamil society long term freedom and save the life and culture.

He is seen as the honest and brave leader to whole Tamils community by Tamils and all world even they describe the LTTE as terrorist group.

So finally my opinion according to above theories except Kantianism, he is a moral leader in all ways to Tamil community, no one can deny the fact that he scarifies his whole life without any corruption for Tamils Freedom in their mother land.


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