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Comparing Factors that Lead to Underdevelopment

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Sociology
Wordcount: 2469 words Published: 8th Feb 2020

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The two less developed countries I decided to write my comparison essay on are Kenya and Nigeria. I decided on these two countries because both countries have similarities on the reason the countries or underdeveloped. Both countries have a vast of natural resources but continue to depend on foreign aid, grants, and foreign loans, (Rajapathirana, 2016).  Both are African countries with corruption, unfair juridical system, misuse of resources, and conflict. In this essay will discuss the similarities of these two countries, Rajapathirana, E. (2016, January 15)

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     Some of the fastest growing economies in Africa serves. The capital cities of Kenya and Nigeria will confirm the significant rising of Africa. The construction of roads and railway lines, growing technologies, and million dollars business malls and mansion being put up across the cities and towns which would lead one to believe this to be a continent’s accent to prosperity yet ironically some people are still deep-rooted in poverty, Rajapathirana, E. (2016, January 15). The gap continues to widen between the rich and the poor despite the demand across the globe for raw material Africa countries are still struggling.

     The first similarities between Kenya and Nigeria are government corruption. The reason   Kenya competitiveness struggling because of the level of corruption that affects every level of the economy. Kenya business faces rampant public service corruption such as complying with administrative requirements lots of red tapes which takes much time, Kenya Corruption Report. (2017, June). Bribery which affects registration and licensing which can become very costly. Some businesses are expected to give informal payments and gifts to obtain permits and utilities. The widespread tax evasion, fraud, and corruption hinder Kenya economic growth, (2017).

     Nigeria is also facing corruption which is a significant obstacle when it comes to business. Although accepting gifts as well as informal payment is illegal and official taking bribes are in jeopardy of being penalized up to seven years in prison Nigeria is still struggling because of bribery, facilitation payments, and gifts. The risk of corruption in Nigeria is prevalent across the board, but the oil sector is especially corrupt. Oil is commanding the Nigerian economy and generates a vast majority of government revenues, yet Nigeria perceived as one of the world’s most corrupt countries Gillies, A. (2009, February) higher levels of corruption exist within its oil sector. The awarding of contracts; licenses the exportation of crude; and importing refined products. Nigeria's has squandered the rising revenues that could help provide the basic like education, health care for some of Nigeria's poorest people.

     Another contributing factor to Nigeria and Kenya developing issue is a lack or misuse of natural resources. Nigeria one of those countries in Africa that has a wide variety of natural resources, But one of the challenges of the natural environment is waste management traditional societies; waste management would mean to collect, treat and disposal of waste in a way as to render harmless to human and animal life. Managing waste disposal in Nigeria is a major concern, residential apartments, waterways, streets, markets and undeveloped section of land have been turned to waste dumps for many households.

     The main reason for the problems of solid waste management is inadequate policies. Government policies on the environment are slow to exist and poorly implemented. Public programs lacked the coverage needed to continuity correct the problem, inadequate funding, lack of facilities and human resources.

     Nigeria also suffers from “economic water shortage due to the inability to properly manage, use and protect water resources.  Nigeria is rich in water resources not to mention surface water found in almost every part of the country and plenty more stored in the ground. Nigeria has 210 cubic kilometers a year of surface water available. However, with all the water resources you would think Nigerians had plenty of drinking water. However, the fact is only 19% (Odume & Slaughter, 2018) of the Nigerians population have safe drinking water. 82% of people living in the city have a basic water supply whereas in rural areas only 54% has a primary water supply, (Odume & Slaughter, 2018). The wealthiest have a distorted amount of access about 80% in comparison to 48% of poor Nigerian (Odume & Slaughter, 2018) the access is uneven.

     Unsafe drinking water together with the poor sanitation and hygiene cost Nigeria around 1.3 billion USD dollars due to premature death, productive time lost and health care costs. Odume, N., & Slaughter, A. (2018, September 19). One might ask a country with an abundance of water supply why is there a water shortage in some areas in Nigeria the answer the  inability to properly manage, use and protect water resources, poor regulatory, and legal operation to prevent toxic concentrations of metals that have been reported in drinking water, Odume, N., & Slaughter, A. (2018, September 19).

     Then there Kenya a population of 46 million, 41 percent (2018) of Kenyans still rely on water sources, such as ponds, rivers, and shallow wells and 59 percent (2018) of Kenyans also use unimproved sanitation solutions. These challenges are more evident in the rural areas and urban slums: out of 55 public water service, Only 9 (2018) providers provide continuous water supply, which leaves people to search for appropriate solutions to basic needs. More than half of Kenya's population have access to hazardous drinking, N. K. (2018, March 21). The lack of clean water caused by prolonged drought, N. K. (2018, March 21). Kenya government recognizes that environmental management, poverty reduction, and economic growth are closely linked, so they put together policies and institutional structure to address the problem.

     Like Nigeria Kenya, also has a waste management problem as the urban parts of East Africa grows so do solid waste. The problem is worse in urban areas due to inadequate funding and lack of regulation and enforcement. The urban families are forced to live in terrible conditions despite the health risk. Children are living and playing among human excrement many use plastic bags to relieve themselves because of few toilets that are available and too expensive to own, Kenya's waste management challenge. (2017, October 08).The children mortality in the slums is 2.5 (2017) times higher than in other areas. The biggest challenge to waste management the lack of disposal space, in the slums. Since urban citizen lives in informal settlements, the government fail to manage their solid waste, Kenya's waste management challenge. (2017, October 08).

     Another comparison Kenya and Nigeria have in common unfair judicial system the law is applied differently for rich people and poor people everything from pre-trial, trial and a court judgment is different. The Nigerian and Kenya legal system is corrupt. The citizen with money can buy freedom, and those without cash suffer behind bars for the same crime.

     In Kenya, the legal system is not sensitive to youths 75% of the prisoner (Ngenye) waiting for pre-trial is between, (Ngenye) 18 and 35. Poor Kenyans arrested for minor offenses, for example, being drunk and creating disturbances not having a business license being disorderly these are just a few reasons for being in prison, Ngenye, J. G. (n.d.). The poor unfairly targeted Kenya prison population is approximately 55,000, (Ngenye) when prison system capacity of 26,757. (Ngenye) 17th highest imprisonment rate in Africa,

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      In Nigeria justice is for sale mostly all poor Nigerians live below one dollar a day so if Nigerian’s find themselves in a legal situation with the judicial system it would not be good, Ngenye, J. G. (n.d.). Poor Nigerians are not in a position to demand justice for less than one percent of Nigerians can secure justice, Jibueze, J. (2016, December 26).

     The criminal justice system appears to side with the rich. The wealthy criminal defendants can afford the astronomical fees of great defense attorneys who can exploit loopholes in the law and get their freedom or lighter sentences or plea bargains, Jibueze, J. (2016, December 26)

     When it comes a complaint the treatment depends on the complainant’s (Jibueze, 2016) the ability to pay off the officers with money, or funds the officer fueling for the patrol car. If a complainant is either too poor or unwilling to part with any money, the investigation may never be initiated.

     Nigeria does have a couple of internal conflicts one being the escalating of the battle between herding communities and farming over lack of land, Dion, E. (2018, November 07). Since January the bloodshed has increased, there are over 1,300 casualties and 300.000, (Dion, 2018) up-rooted people at the beginning of 2018. Nigeria struggles to manage the herder-farmer conflict Nigeria federal and state government intervention to reduce the conflict the results are questionable. The government put a provision in place but fail to implement now human rights are being violated and excessive force used on the citizen. To add to the conflict the failure to investigations and prosecute those arrested, have alienated people on both sides of the conflict, Dion, E. (2018, November 07).

     Kenya is also facing conflict due to a drought which has worsened. The people who earn their living farming and who own livestock are forced to leave their homes and migrate elsewhere, Potter, L. (2018, September 10).

      The policymakers predict that there would be a rise in migration which will lead to violent conflict. The water shortages have impacted the risk of violence within a population; 43 percent (Potter, 2018) of people who reported relocating were also victims of violence, compared to nearly 12 percent of the general population. Potter, L. (2018, September 10).

     The geography Kenya is two times bigger then Nigeria Kenya has 47.6 million people Nigeria (143.0 million.). Although Kenya bigger more people live in Nigeria.  Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania and Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon the geography is different yet their struggles are similar. Kenya and Nigeria may be different in size and population, but they are very much alike when it comes to being an undeveloped country, Country comparison Kenya vs. Nigeria 2018. (n.d.).



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