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Women Homelessness And Domestic Violence Social Work Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Social Work
Wordcount: 4455 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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The first part of the review outlines key research findings on the statistics of domestic violence, explanatory theories, factors associated with vulnerability, women are more likely to experience domestic violence, with repeat victimisation and more likely to end up homeless, with profound pyhsical, social and psychological effects in their lives. Most women with the experience of domestic violence, return to their abusers and repeat the circle of homelessness. The second part of the project presents evidence from the government, local authorities, a range of initiatives and partnerships are working together to tackle domestic violence, through established strategies and policies, to develop interventions to tackle the underlining problems of homelessness, by providing a safe route to re-housing and working in partnership to increase safe accommodations for women, escaping from domestic violence (Caramel, 2002 -no such source). Evidence on criminal justice responses in particular, and their effects on victims. The project was developed by identifying recent relevant research through online searches of the Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts and other abstracts databases and other relevant text books from various libraries, also by following up key references texts. Particular research has been paid to available UK research pacifically (?) within homelessness, but much published literature on domestic violence is North America in origin.

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Homeless women who are victims of domestic violence

In England, women make up 30% of clients of homelessness services. Research conducted by Crisis showed that over 20% of women became homeless to escape from the domestic violence. (Crisis, 2009). Domestic violence has the highest rate of repeat victimisation of any crime; over 40% are reported as a victim of domestic violence. (Caramel, 2002). – no such source

In 2002 to 2003 129,000 applicants were accepted as homeless and in priority need, and increased by 10% in the previous year. This is old data Data carried out by the British Crime Surrey, indicate that 57% of those who have been a victim of domestic violence, are then a victim of domestic violence again. (Crisis, 2009)Not on the web-site. Walby and Allen, 2009 state that three-quarters of women (all women?) have been the victims of domestic violence. The worst possible cases of domestic violence, rage from all types of violence, one in five women have been the victims of domestic violence, the levels of domestic violence are extremely high, a third of female victims were subject to more than three incidents of domestic violence , which is subject to the worst incident experienced by women. Are we talking about all women or homeless women?

Males & Hague (1997) identify why women are more likely to experience domestic violence due to unequal power relationships between men and women, when relationships become violent, a women will leave her home because of the violence. All the time? Also by the homelessness legislation, which has been changed? ?(Males& Hague (1997. p.397).

The Home Office illustrate that all information gathered from the surrey regarding domestic violence carried out by the British Crime Surrey, indicate other inter-personal violence experienced by victims, for example these include sexual assaults, repeated victimisation, and the possibilities of seeking out-side help such as help from the police and other agencies. The overall results from the surrey provides useful information for policy makers, practitioners and criminal justice system, professionals in the challenge to reduce these forms of violence connected with domestic violence. (Walby and Allen. 2004). The policy development to address domestic violence is based on three elements; these include preventing violence from happening in the first place, protection and justice, making sure that the justice system provides adequate protection for victims and brings offenders to justice, and most importantly available support, providing adequate housing support to victims to build their lives. (Walby and Allen, 2004). You needed to relate all the materials to homelessness,

Where is the logic here?

Netto et al.2009) supplement their own data obtained throughout their own studies relating to the ‘Sanctuary model’. This refers to sanctuary schemes which support women facing homelessness due to domestic violence to remain in their current residence in order to be protected against attack from outside the home. The study will compare and contrast ( why are you reporting a study that has not yet been conducted?) different women that have used the sanctuary services, for the purpose to draw some qualitative data from the study, which allow us to get some data on the victims of domestic violence. However the data related to women from different ethnic groups and the scale of domestic violence was increasingly high. (was it conducted or not?)

Local authorities fulfil their obligation to homeless women

Local authorities fulfil their obligations to homeless women by statutory and operational level to provide the right service. Many local authorities and multi-agencies are working in partnership to support victims of domestic violence becoming homeless, but there is still more practice needed between multi-agencies (?) and the need for more trained staff. Local authorities have been particularly responsive to these initiatives (Hague 1999). Multi-agency initiatives have advantages in representing a valuable area for debate about the social meaning of domestic violence and the development of services. The ideology for setting up multi-agency initiatives on domestic violence was influenced by the increasing international scope of the movement of domestic violence, such as the United Nations. (? UN is an international organisation not a movement)However the multi-agency coordination was recommended by a number of people, including civil libertarians (?) and feminist activists, majority of initiatives were set up by groups of agencies, such as Women’s Aid groups and many other organisations. The positive elements of multi-agencies initiatives lies lie in the commitment in working in partnership between agencies, and can lead to an emphasis on empowerment and support. Multi-agency initiatives could be of a major importance in the future in relation to strategies and policies of building awareness about domestic violence and its consequences in increasing women’s safety and in developing and coordinating effective and wide reaching services in decision-making and making priorities. (Radford el al, 2002 p.129).

How is this para related to multi-agency work?

Essentially local authority departments were required to satisfy themselves that people who applied for housing were effectively homeless, had a priority need and were not intentionally homeless. Only people who satisfied the relevant criteria were entitled to accommodation. Although no housing minister has said he wants to limit women’s ability to escape domestic violence, ideological factors significantly influence how governments and local authorities define and respond to the ‘problems’ of homelessness. Legislative definitions of homelessness are problematic as they define the governments’ responsibility in a legal sense. However, Loveland (1994) argues, such discretion-laden criteria would encourage many councils to minimise, if not evade their obligations. (Loveland, 1994, p.369)

Even though Local authorities obtain a statutory responsibility for tackling homelessness, despite all the criticisms they face in regards to the services they offer for homeless people. Nevertheless, many local authorities are using techniques to avoid their responsibilities mainly on the grounds that, a women maybe pressurized into accepting such help without being property informed of their legal rights ( Netto et al, 2009). This argument can relate to the fact that, having left their accommodation due to legitimate fear of domestic violence, a women with children or pregnant is legally entitled to be re-housed by the local authority. The government’s risk assessment states, a women who is encouraged to stay in her current home, rather being replaced with another alterative accommodation can be in danger of continuous violence. Further research conducted by Crisis found that the majority of homeless women were turned away by local authority’s front-line staff from making a homelessness application. Most women, who had negative experience, never approached their local authorities again for help again. (Crisis, 2009).not there

There are particular Housing Associations and local councils that provide support and resources for homeless women, they are responsible for offering a priority need to a vulnerable person, threatened with violence and no-longer can stay in the household due to continuous violence. However (?) the council has a responsibility to help people who become homeless, and the obligation to found an emergency accommodation for a vulnerable person faced with violence. In no circumstances the council can not send a vulnerable person back to an area of constant violence. (Shelter, 2005).

Women experiencing domestic violence often use the homelessness route to re-housing, but this should not be seen as the only option, but local authorities carefully provide support for homeless women. Emergency accommodations are provided by various organisations, and statistics show that most women who are given emergencies are affected with domestic violence. Local authority hostels may provide a more supportive environment and most have a policy of not accepting people who have a history of violence. However, some hostels are used by diverse groups and because it accommodates people with domestic violence. It is important that strict procedures are followed to keep information confidential, because most women are in threatening situations, therefore security and safety needs to be taken into consideration by local authorities. The best way of providing support, security and, in most cases, better facilities. Unfinished sentence However, there is a clear need for increased refuge accommodation as London does not meet recommended provision of one family space per 10,000 of the population. The pressure on existing refuges means that many women are unable to access a place. (Homes for London’s Women Mayor of London, 2005). Why do you suddenly move to discuss refugees?

1985, 1996 and 2001 Housing Acts relation to battered women.

The Housing Act 1985 gave homeless women some legal rights, but limited as (?) women’s chances of been re-housed and the few options that are available to them are commonly unsuitable. However women had been the invisible homeless, frequenting staying in violent relationships, which has caused them to be homeless, and with the limited help from the Housing Act 1985. There is no logic in this para you need first to describe the legislation and then critique itThe legislation failed to the increasing problem of homelessness and therefore women continued to suffer domestic violence, purely because of the lack of alternatives. (Logan, 1986). Vulnerable women are covered by part 3 of the 1985 Housing Act (Hallett, 1996 P.66). Part of the Act placed duties on local housing authorities to help homeless people, but the Act only granted ‘priority need’ to certain people. (Royal College of Physicians, 1994). The legislation failed to the increasing problem of homelessness and therefore women continued to suffer domestic violence, purely because of the lack of alternatives. (Logan, 1986).

The new Housing Act 1996 has bought (?) few changes; it updates provisions in the Housing Associations Act 1985. In accordance to domestic violence, the new act has introduced a new discretionary ground for a violent partner who has forced the other partner to leave the home and the court is satisfied that the abused partner is unlikely to return. Unclear (Cowan. 1996, p.128). Furthermore the Act gives the local authorities power to promote in regards to the existing legislation, where local authorities have analogous powers in relation to housing associations even though few of these only apply to registered associations.unclear (1996, p.26). The new law (It is not new) weakens existing homelessness legislation, therefore the new law brought about many challenging difficulties within local authorities to provide accommodation for homeless households. (Males & Hague (1997).

Pascal (et.al 2001) suggests, the Conservative ‘family’ agenda was driven by fears that the, ‘homelessness legislation encouraged teenage pregnancy, family breakdown and all the other ills that were thought to flow from the increasing numbers of lone mothers’ (Pascal, et.al, 2001, p.298). Consequently, the Housing Act 1996 removed the right to permanent housing for homeless applicants and replaced it with a right to temporary housing for ‘roofless’ people and reduced the government’s statutory responsibility. Nevertheless, the 2001 Housing Act made a priority need for housing for a person who is vulnerable as a result of ceasing to occupy accommodation by reason of violence from another person or threats of violence from another person which are likely to be carried out. (Delahay 2002).

There is nothing on Homelessness Act 2002!

Women rough sleepers, experiences they face on the street

Crisis research shows that whilst 60% of homeless women have slept rough, only 12%t had engaged with street outreach teams. 40% of homeless women reported having been excluded from a service and 10% were not using any service. 70% had become homeless to escape violence from a partner, yet less than a third of woman have negative experiences of approaching local authorities. In comparison with male rough sleepers, only 6% of males are reported to be sleeping rough from experiences of domestic violence. Nevertheless, rough sleeping is extremely dangerous for homeless women and they are vulnerable to been physically attacked and sexually assaulted. Women are drawn to these dangers by been invisible and insolated in hidden locations away from public streets. Numerous homeless women are known for engaging in unwanted sexual liaisons in order to secure accommodations, such as prostitution to earn money for drugs or other habits. (Crisis, 2009). Not there When looking at this in a wider scale, women who are rough sleepers are mainly associated with many types of problems. These problems can be related to emotional difficulties that come from domestic violence, and can be treatable that lead to recovering with the right support. However policy guidelines have been published by the local government in order to evaluate the extent of rough sleeping, this will help local authorities, in partnership with other agencies, to carry out a court of people sleeping rough in the area. (Brooke, 2009).

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Charles (1995) argues, the refuge movement now known, as Women’s Aid has been instrumental in effecting changes, which grant certain rights to women threatened with domestic violence. The Women’s Aid also provides various supports, on how to get legal advice such as solicitors that specialise in domestic violence cases. (The Gresham Press Surrey, 1998, p.11). obscure source There are many refuges available to women escaping from domestic violence. A refuge is a house where women can get away from domestic violence , a women who has experienced physical, psychological or financial violence or other forms of violence’s can be taken into a women’s refuge. (Women Aid, 2009).

Women refuges.

Pahl,( 1978) states that a refuge should be seen as a place offering different help to different women, and a place where women can feel secure and at the same time, a women should be supported to find a more suitable place, as quickly as possible. The policy recommendations emphasis, that a refuge should be a place where women do not have to lose their rights in order to be re-housed. Battered women, with or without children should stay in the refuge as long as they wish, housing needs for battered women should be treated urgently. However women are no longer called battered women, instead women suffering from domestic violence.

The Salvation Army is one of the largest providers of refuges for homeless women across the UK. They have refuges for women, with life- changing services that dramatically change a women’s self-esteem while staying at the hostel. The Salvation Army provides emergency accommodations, and statistics show that most women who are given emergencies are affected with domestic violence. (Salvation Army, 2009). Not in your references Local authority hostels may provide a more supportive environment and most have a policy of not accepting people who have a history of violence. However, some hostels are used by diverse groups and because it accommodates for people suffering from domestic violence. It is important that strict procedures are followed to keep information confidential, because most women are in threatening situations. However security and safety needs to be taken into consideration by local authorities. The best way of providing support, security and, in most cases, better facilities. However, there is a clear need for increased refuge accommodation as London does not meet recommended provision of one family space per 10,000 of the population. The pressure on existing refuges means that many women are unable to access a place. (Homes for London’s Women Mayor of London, 2005). Not in your references

Women more a risk of homelessness now than 20 years ago, has domestic violence changed over the years.

Over the last twenty years homelessness has always existed, with the history of safe housing provision for women in the UK and the influence of the Women’s Aid movement, the role of local authorities and the influence of the Conservative governments, which then lead to the New Labour government, in changes for women in homelessness. Unclear Also the women’s movement in the 1970’s, and before this movement came, women leaving a violent partner can only get support from a family member or a friend. What does it mean?(Morley 2000). The women’s movement over the years has influenced and supported women’s rights, with a few houses (?) offering sanctuary to women organised on ‘self-help’ principles. Somerville (2000) notes the influence of the movement upon public perceptions of domestic violence that led to major changes in public policy.

However, whilst the 1990s have been regarded as a period of significant development in terms of public awareness of domestic violence (Hague 1999) unfinished sentence.The Housing Act (1996) has been seen by some as a step backwards. You’ve already discussed this Act.This legislation removed the right of those defined as ‘statutorily homeless’ to be housed permanently. Local authorities can only offer permanent accommodation to those registered on the council housing list; those escaping domestic violence are now merely entitled to temporary accommodation. The legislation gave local authorities the power to refuse housing to any person believed to have suitable accommodation elsewhere; this especially affects women from ethnic minority groups who could be assessed as having access to housing in another country (Harwin and Brown 2000). Obviously, this had consequences for many made homeless as a result of violence.

You need to look at the Homelessness Act 2002.

The recognition of domestic violence that leads to all types of abuse have been strengthened by women’s movements, state, and multi-agency initiatives, by creating a new service and developing policies in order to respond to abused women’s needs. (repetition) Also with the new policies and women’s refuge organizations its safe to say that women are safer than 20 years ago. (Skinner el al, 2005). Feminist’s activists have campaigned for developed organizations that have successfully challenged social institutions for failing to protect women.what does this mean? However (?) battered women’s advocates have publicized their criticism of police departments, courts and the law has reinforced legislations for the criminal justice to respond. Criminal justice system has been criticized by battered women and their advocates for not providing enough protection to victims of violence. (Pauline, 1993). The feminist movement examined and politicized all aspects of women’s lives. (Pauline, 1993 P.148). Feminist developed organizations to end gender discrimination and assaults on women as well as many other dilemmas. Majority of these organizations focused on protecting women, by ensuring safety at home also battered women’s shelters. (there is no logic in this paragraph)

In today’s society there are vulnerary (?) and statutory sectors with experiences of women service users and professional staff, for example, until recently the focus in the UK was domestic violence. What does it mean? This relies on the success of women’s groups, and organizations placing domestic violence on the agenda and influencing non-statutory bodies and statutory sectors and agencies. In order to achieve what domestic violence was focused upon, since feminist actives ? have overcome difficulties in the violence against women. (Pauline, 1993). Many organizations such as Women’s Aid in regards to their influential movement in the 80s, which created a growing visibility of domestic violence in public and media campaigns. By the 1990’s central government and statutory agencies had began to play a more direct role, practically at a local level and in relation to domestic violence, where there was policy of multi-agency intervention. You’ve said all this already. Over the emerging years there was a new legislation from the mid- 90, which was a civil protection orders for domestic violence, this was the Family Law Act 1996. With the new labour government introduced in 1997, issues concerning domestic violence had gradually moved towards the mainstream. (Skinner el al, 2005). However it began by developing new policies, aimed at uprising ? intervention strategy on violence against women, one particular policy was ‘Women’s Unit 1999’ and focused on domestic violence. Furthermore, this emphasis by state and multi-agencies ? on domestic violence had both negative and positive consequences (why?) , but on the other hand it can be seen as a way of success of pressure from women’s organizations and feminists that violence against women should be taken seriously. (author 2005). The positive approaches in tackling violence against women starts with government funding for projects in order to support and end domestic violence. (Skinner, 2005). This is very vague

Males& Hague (1997) suggest that the high increase in homelessness this is old data defines the changing of the government policies and shrinking public provision within the UK. According to studies were carried out, indicating that violence was associated with domestic situations that women experienced. In the study women’s feelings and about the process they went through within their previous experience of domestic violence and how they obtained safe accommodation. Where is the logic here? Males& Hague (1997, p.398).A woman whose relationship ends through domestic violence and her only option are to avoid the long-term of homelessness. Many other elements are also connected in finding an alternative solution to the various problems, these all depend on whether a women faced with violence from her husband, she then needs to take legal action against him. The legal actions are getting a court order (injunction), this means removing a violent person from the home. Another court order a women can apply for is Non-molestation orders; this orders the violent person,” not to assault, harass or molest her in any way, or to allow his friends or family to do”. (The Gresham Press Surrey, 1998, p.10). This paragraph makes little sense


This literature review has focused on those women who are accepted as being priority need in the system. Although women with the experience of domestic violence face a tragedy of homelessness despite the significant advances in policy and legislation, it’s fair to say that homeless women continue to endure unpleasant situations and are not getting the right support they require. In conclusion to women who become homeless are at substantially greater risk of rough sleeping on the streets, which then results in dangerous situations where a woman has no other alternative but to adapt to the dilemmas of the streets. Despite, the help from local authorities and multi-agencies, there are still a high number of homeless women. According to various statistics the number of victims of domestic violence has risen over the years, which then increases homelessness significantly. All these institutions are aimed at working with women to reduce violence domestic (?), by providing the right services for women. Although homelessness legislation has changed over the years, it provides a crucial route to secure housing for homeless women. Crisis believes that by paying attention to the needs of homeless women they will provide the right services to reduce homelessness. This must be your conclusion, not Crisis’s.

In the past women’s movements have campaigned for women’s rights and have influenced organisations as well as creating many women organisations that’s why society today goes a long way in supporting women, such as the Women’s Aid organisation. Women are no longer oppressed in society and have the right to seek legal advice and support, a woman is no longer limited by society and is given much more legal protection against domestic assaults. Marjory of the organisations run by the government and vulnerary organisations all aim to deliver services that help women leave their abusers and leave their homelessness behind. (Crisis, 2009). Not there


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