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Biological Basis of Learning, Memory and Motivation

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Psychology
Wordcount: 1302 words Published: 9th Apr 2018

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  • Azharul Islam


Psychologists have to gather specialized knowledge in considering the ways in which the biological structure and functions of the body affect behaviour. The biological processes are the essential part of human psychology. Our understanding of human behaviour cannot be complete without knowledge of the brain and others part of the nervous system. Biological factors are centrals to every sensory experience, states of consciousness, motivation and emotion, development through out the life span and physical and psychological health and wellbeing.

Executive summary

Biological bases influence the learning, memory, and motivation. The biological factors is very important because it is controlling our behaviour .We might not be able to understand behaviour without an understanding of our biological makeup.


Objectives of the study:

Basically this study aims to

1. Collect information on the situation of biological factors of our behaviour. 2. Explore ways how to improve the behavior.

3. The function of the neuron is fundamental biological aspects of the body.


Biological basis of learning

Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour based on experience. Learning is the aspect of new things by using past experience.

Many psychologists believe learning is based on the strengthening of the neural connections between stimuli and specific patterns of muscle movements, while others said that learning involvoves changes in cognition.

The existence of biological constraints is consistent with assess mental discussion of behavior. Freshly there are making suitable by alternative benefits that promote survival for organism that rapidly learn or neglecte that certain behaviors. Such as, our ability to learning avoid touching hot surfaces increase our change in survival (barkow, and tooby 1992; terry, 2003).

Neuclei areas are group of neurons forming structures with specific function. For example each of the different colour on our brain model represent and individual areas each with it own internal structure and function (Jeanette, J Norden Venderbilt university school and medicine).

Telencephalon; – consists of two cerebral hemispheres the outer covering of the hemespheres is called the cortex. The cortex is responsible for voluntary action or thought and for subjective experience.

Mesencephalon; – contain many small nuclei that are important to relexs, such as reflexs turning of the eyes toward the source of an objects or sound.

Metencephalon: – A structure that connect the cerebellum with the rest of the body and cerebellum that involved in learned skilled motor movement.

The role of biological factors of learning has an example that discussed john and his associates. On one fateful evening, they ate eight hot dog. Two hour leter, they become more than just a little nauseated. As a result, it was many year until they ate another hot dog. This experience of learning to dislike hot dogs is an example of a learned taste aversion. (Garcia, Hankins and Rusiniak, 1974)

Biological basis of memory

Memory consists in remembering what has previously been learned .It would be better, however, to say that memory consists in learning, retaining and remembering what has previously been learned (psychology; Methuen and co. Ltd; London; 1964.

Memory processes are distributed across the brain, relating to different information processing systems involve during the intitle exprosure to a stimulus. (Friedman and Donoghue 2000).

A theory stated by Canadian researchar Donald Hebb (1949) is still considerd to provide a general model of the biological process responsible for memory (Jeffrey and Reid, 1997; Tsien, 2007). According to Hebb, each experience activates a unique pattern of neurons in the brain. This activities cause structural changes to occur in those neurons near the synaptic gaps that link them. To Hebb, these changes in the functioning of synapses in the brain, which he termed ”synaptic facilition”, is the biological basis of memory.

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Many different brain areas play a role in memory. The cerebellum plays critical role in the timing execution of learned, skilled motor movement. Nuclei deep in the hemisphere called the basal ganglia are involves in motor programs. Many different areas of the brain contributes to attention, these include cortical areas of the reticular formation, all areas which contributes to alertness attention awareness.

The hippocampus is a part of the brain limbic systems that plays a centrals role in the consolidation of memories.The hippocampus is an older cortical areas involve in multiple aspects of memory. The left hippocampus is more involve in the memory facts, epesodes and words. It is also responsibility for constructing. The right hippocampus is more involve in spatial memory.The hippocampus aims in the initial encoding of information that like akind of neurological e- mail system.(smith, 2000, wheeler, Petersen, and buckner 2000, Wilson; 2000).

The results of research on the brains role in memory reveal two ways in which STM (short term memory) and LTM (long term memory). Firstly there is extensive evidence that physical changes in neural synapses are involved in LTM and but not in STM. And secondly there is evidence that different brain structures are involves in different ways in the three stage of memory.

Biological basis of motivation

Motivation:-motivation refers to the reasons why any behaviour occurs or specifically, to the forces or processes that initiate the behaviour, direct it , and contribute to its strength.(psychology , wadsworth publishing company; 1984;

Eating behaviour is subject to homeostasis, as most people’s weight stays within a relatively stable range. The hypothalamus in the brain is central to the regulation of food intake. Acting as a kind of internal weight thermostat, the hypothalamus calls for either greater or less food intake (Capaldi, 1996; woods et al, 2000; Berthoud, 2000).

Thirst is the biological process as like as drinking circuits .Drinking circuits is the association of tissue, body, and neuron with in nerve and cellus.It is associate with the hypothalamus deeply as like the other drinking circuits. (Thompson et. Al; 1980).

Sex is the powerful biological motivation. The sex motivations easily understand the influence of sex hormone. It is related with the increase of age. Sex hornmone influence the body to create akind of presser for sex activies. This presser to be continued that time the sex activites is not complete. (Morgan, king. Weisz and schopler, 1993).

Most of the motivation are based on the body’s need to maintain a certain level of essential elements; adequate sugar in the blood in the nourish cell , enough water in the body. This levels are regulated to homeostatic mechanism. These mechanism imbalance in the body and stimulate action that restore the proper balance.


  • Psychology; Methuen and co. Ltd; London; 1964
  • Friedman and Donoghue 2000).
  • Smith, 2000, wheeler, Petersen, and buckner 2000, Wilson; 2000).
  • Psychology , wadsworth publishing company; 1984;
  • Capaldi, 1996; woods et al, 2000; Berthoud, 2000).
  • Thompson et. Al;1980).
  • Morgan, king. Weisz and schopler, 1993.
  • Barkow, and Tooby 1992; terry, 2003.
  • Garcia, Hankins and Rusiniak, 1974).


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