China is a communist country who wields great strength over her people in order to lead them. The regulation in communist party is close means citizens live in fear of the repercussions associated with not complying with this rule and turn to methods such as infanticide or abortion as a way to avoid them if they should conceive additional children. While the Chinese government has taken great strides to ensure that China’s population does not explode or further exceed their ability to sustain the people of China, it does bring to mind whether or not the government can mandate the size of a family and put such pressure upon the people of China.
It holds real political power in China’s de facto one party state. Party organisations run in parallel to those of the Government at all levels. The overwhelming majority of delegates to the NPC(national people congress) are party members. Party membership remains essential for a successful career, particularly in the public sector. Many successful entrepreneurs are also party members.
Although the constitution of the People’s Republic of China guarantees freedom of speech, the right to a fair trial, press freedom, the right to follow a religion and the right to vote, in reality political censorship is widespread. Although individuals are accorded the right to protest, any organised demonstration is quickly suppressed. Organised opposition to the ruling party is not tolerated. Concerns have often been raised by the international community about China’s record on human rights, with many allegations of abuses. China has the highest number of death penalty executions in the world, accounting for roughly 90% of the world total in 2004. China has a history of alternation between periods of political and social turbulence – sometimes involving violence and civil war – and longer periods of highly centralised authoritarian rule.
The ‘Singaporean Spirit’ advocates authority and discipline. The paradox that ‘Singapore is a democracy without freedom’ rings true in the sense that with all the ingredients of a democracy, Singapore has been continuously ruled by one party. As regards the politics in Singapore one party – People’s Action Party has been in power since 1956, and despite its long, unopposed rule, it is generally regarded as efficient and has created stable political and economic environment. There have been allegations against the government of being authoritarian where the opposition is tolerated very little. The odd marriage of democracy with authoritarianism is mainly due to Singapore’s Chinese cultural heritage. Singapore’s patriarchal rule is characterized by the government’s absolute authority and its parental benevolence. It disciplines speeches and religious activities deemed detrimental to national interests, advocates individual obedience to the collectivist society and yet, at the same time, also holds the government accountable for the people Singapore believes in the rule by the crême de la crême of the society with an iron hand. Law enforcement includes flogging. The ruling government must be devoid of corruption. As soon as the People’s Action Party came to power, it began to fight corruption through legal means. The success in keeping Singapore’s government clean is largely credited to the establishment of the independent Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau. Appointed by the president and responsible directly to the prime minister, the bureau is almighty. Singapore boasts an efficient capital market, and actively facilitates the free flow of financial resources
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Rigid law enforcement, however, does not preempt change. But changes have always been carefully managed so that no chaos will result. Stability is always the priority. A good example is Singapore’s transition in political leadership. The process is long and gradual, but smooth and peaceful. In 1980s, the triune system of party, government and military was restructured. The amended constitution required that the president, who used to be chosen by the parliament, be elected directly by the people.
China’s economy was once a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade. However, during the last quarter century, China’s economy has changed to a more market-oriented economy with a rapidly growing private sector. Due to such rapid growth, China has become a major player in the global economy (CIA World Factbook).
Within the fastest developing economic in china means china has been created a challenging business environment for manager in the multinational company. In the developing country where the economy is often changing, make the manager confuse within a law, sometime the law is unclear and not consistence as well. Many managers fell frustrated because they don’t understand the law.
David Chang from Philps china said “when decided to invest in china you can’t use a normal process planning business. The manager can’t calculate the chance of business in china within mathematical, because there still many uncertainty factor that u can plan.
Now, china is in the middle of market economic so standard business is not useful in china. Guy Mclrod from airbus china has an experience when they want to get a license in china, some manager can get easily and other need a long time to have it. All the process has never been done in the same way.
China and Singapore economies are very different. Singapore is a small former colony with no natural resources except its deepwater natural harbor and its strategic location at the opening of the straits of Malacca between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea and real independent economic base, wracked y ethnic tensions and labor and political unrest, and threatened by its larger neighbors, has become the most modern, successful, stable, and sophisticated economy in Southeast Asia. Singapore economic is more stable, every law is constantly, all the company need to follow the rule. Singapore has a fully developed industrial international economy. The country depends heavily on imports, as there are few natural resources on the island. There has been a consistent surplus in the overall balance of payments. There is a large degree of state control of the economy
In the rapidly developing Southeast Asian region, Singapore influence derives from its capacity to attract foreign trade, investment and finance, and to invest in turn in its neighbors. Continued economic development and wealth is also a vital prerequisite and foundation for stability within Singapore.
Singapore and china culture have some similarity in mianzi ‘saving face’. Saving face in the these two country is also critical. Causing embarrassment to another person, such as correcting him or her, disagreeing with an older person or a superior, may cause a loss of face for all parties involved and can be very detrimental for business negotiations. Reputation and social standing strongly depend on a person’s ability to control one’s emotions and remain friendly at all times. If you have to bring up an unpleasant topic with a person, never do so in public and always convey your message in ways that maintain the other’s self-respect. Reserve and tact are very important. Keep your cool and never show openly that you are upset.
But in China cultural practices is not only mianzi (face) but also guanxi (connections) and political concerns remain important in China (Bai and Bennington 2005). Cultural factors also influence the cognitive models that managers use in PAs.
In the culture where Guanxi has always been more important than laws, establishment of the legal framework has been futile without increased enforcement of existing laws. Foreign businesses are not the only ones frustrated by the problems that remain in China today. Nevertheless, guanxi is still regarded as one of the important determinants the success of the wholly owned foreign enterprises and joint venture business in China. The effect of the guanxi was very important to business in China, without local connection it would be almost impossible to set up a business in China. To maintaining guanxi the company should prepare a various types of paying such as management fees, gifts, entertainment and so on. Sometimes, the entertainment expenses were more than rmb100,000 per month ( see appendix 2)
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The culture of Singapore is one exclusive kaleidoscope of all aspects of it that blend perfectly with the city and its people. The diverse population of Singapore, comprising of the Chinese, Malay, Indian and European immigrants, celebrate their own unique cultures that integrate with each other to present such a unique cultural diffusion. In any case, Singaporean Chinese dominate the business culture of the country. Singapore’s culture is generally group-oriented. Asserting individual preferences may be seen as less important than having a sense of belonging to a group, conforming to its norms, and maintaining harmony among its members. Building lasting and trusting personal relationships is therefore very important, though to a lesser degree than in several other Asian countries. Some Singaporeans may engage in business while the relationship building process is still ongoing.
People in Singapore are usually very friendly and polite. This does not affect their determination to reach business goals, though, and your counterparts will patiently and persistently pursue their objectives. It is in your best interest to do the same. Copyright 2006, 2007, 2008 – Lothar Katz 2 In Singapore’s business culture, the respect a person enjoys depends primarily on his or her status and rank, age, achievements, and education. You will commonly find leaders in senior roles to be of advanced age. It is important to treat elderly people with great respect. Long hours and hard wore, are expected, especially at the executive level. Admired personal traits include humility, experience, and team spirit.
Some nationalities think that china has not a legal system but they are wrong. China has developed a legal system, largely geared to foreign investor, from scratch. Starting in 1979, china adopted its equity joint venture law” on the back of the open door policy which marked by Deng Xiaoping’s ascendancy to power at the 11th party congress in 1987.(Laurence J.Brahm 2003)
Since that time, china has adopted legislation for equity as well as co-operative joint venture and wholly foreign-owned investment enterprises, complete legislation governing all aspects of intellectual property, foreign exchange control, and dispute resolution. In the past few years, China has put in place legislation to govern securities markets, and recently has adopted a corporate law.
The problem with the expatriate is that they do not understand how the Chinese legal system works and how it can benefit them. The system in china makes enormous sense for a developing country with an economy undergoing fundamental transformation. The law sets the parameters, but after an assessment of the situation the government will fill the gaps by implementing legislation. What one need to be aware of the shifting policies which often underwrite the law. The expatriate should understand these policies means understanding how the government thinks.
Singapore legal system measures the transparency and level of corruption in the legal system Singapore separated from Malaysia in 1965, becoming a sovereign and independent state. A new Supreme Court of Judicature Act was enacted in 1969 thus creating Singapore’s own Supreme Court, comprising the Court of Appeal, Court of Criminal Appeal and the High Court. The Subordinate Courts Act was also enacted at this time, putting in place the District, Magistrates, Coroners, Juvenile Courts. In 1969, the jury system was abolished in Singapore, leaving all matters both civil and criminal in the hands of the judges. In 1968, the Syariah Court was established by virtue of the Administration of Muslim Law Act to deal with the application of Muslim law in Singapore.
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