Reform is a key component in any establishment over time if efficiency and efficacy are to be maintained. Thus, in recent years, what is noted is that many countries have undertaken Administrative Reform as a crucial step towards strengthening their economy and better manage their social development.
Administrative Reform is defined as “A conscious, well-considered change that is carried out in a public sector organization or system for the purpose of improving its structure, operation or the quality of its workforce.” Another view of Administrative Reform is that it is a deliberate use of authority and influence in applying new measures to an administrative system in order to change its goals, organizational structures, and procedures with the aim of increasing quality, efficiency, and effectiveness in the development of the services provided. Hence, from this, we can share the view posited by Caiden (1968), “Reform is based on the simple idea that man should not wait for changes to take place naturally but should seek to speed, by artificial means, improvements in the world order.”
While it should be done by those means, how is it viewed by countries? The literature reveals that Administrative Reform can be either partial or complete and it can be a very slow process that can take place at different times depending on whether the country gains independents or whether there is a change in political parties.
Additionally, to different nations with different political systems, Administrative Reform means different things. To those nations considered to be industrialized, Administrative Reform generally means “a process of changes in the administration structures or procedures within the public services because they have become out of line with the expectations of the social and political environment"
Why then this move to Administrative Reform throughout the world?
According to the literature, the reform, for the most part, was for two specific reasons. The first being that the Public Administration must create a pleasant or friendly atmosphere for the investment, and second, that as far as realistic as possible the public administration must be competent and right or ethical. To this end, the administrative reform was created.
To achieve the afore mentioned merits, Caiden (1969) categorizes the Administrative Reforms into four categories for introducing and implementing change: reform imposed through political changes/revolution, reforms to remedy organizational rigidity which is a reform from within, reforms through the legal system and finally, reforms through changes in attitudes (Thompson 2009). These four categories mention by Caiden are necessary for the proper functioning of any type of reform.
Administrative Reform is considered to be a political process designed to adjust the relationships between a bureaucracy and other elements in a society or within the bureaucracy itself (Groves 1976). It is a combination of different motivating powers which reveal alackof compatibility betweendifferent reform situation and institutional norms and values. According to Farazmand 2002, " Itdescribes an approach that has made a major impact on ideas ofdevelopment in the modern world, ideas that will continue,
Since administrative norms and ideals are still widely admired and imitated.
Administrative reform introduces the ideas of modernization, transformation, and professionalism for the enhancement or development of institutions and processes. According to "an instrumental perspective, an active Administrative Reform process and policy are characterized by careful planning relatively unambiguous goals, a clear definition of alternatives, and insight into the consequences of various reforms measures a conscious choice between alternatives and effects that coincide with the main goals (Christensen 2003)".
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To this end, Administrative Reform must attempts to improve what government administration intends to achieve; if the goals of the government are not sound there cannot be no real administrative reform. This reform is considered to be normative and very important for developing countries of which St. Vincent and the Grenadines is apart. Hence, regardless of the various transcending bureaucracy structures, the administrator's role would be that of a driving force for change.
There is also a reform that is planned and organized designed to increase organizational effectiveness and viability. The entire organizations do not change or reform however the internal management is re-organized to make it suitable for the new changes. ASYCUDA is one such system that was introduces into the Custom and excise department in St. Vincent and the Grenadines to assist in satisfying the needs of their clients.
- Farazmand Ali. 2002. Administrative Reform in Developing Nations. USA. Online at: https://books.google.com.vc/books?id=77vJ5z1261AC&printsec=frontcover&dq=administrative+reform+in+developing+nations&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiGpJG--OTlAhXPjFkKHYv1CtUQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=administrative%20reform%20in%20developing%20nations&f=false. Accessed 12/11/19
- Groves T. Roderick. 1976. Administrative Reform and Political Development. Neverlands. Online at:https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-010-1383-3_3.Accessed 12/11/19.
- Christensen, Tom& Laegreid, Per. 2003. Administrative Reform Policy: The challenges of turning symbols into practice. Public Organization Review. 3.3-27.10.1023/A:1023002810428
- Thompson William. 2009. The political economy of reform; lessons from pensions, product markets and labour markets in ten OECD countries. Online at: chrome-extension://oemmndcbldboiebfnladdacbdfmadadm/https://www.oecd.org/site/sgemrh/46190166.pdf
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