According to Mozart’s Magic Flute and Beethoven (2004), During the XVIII century in some countries (Italy, Germany, Austria, France) results the formation of new genres and forms of instrumental music, was finally formed and reached its climax in the so-called “Viennese classical school.” Viennese classical school, organically absorbed the advanced achievements of the national musical culture, was itself deeply national phenomenon, rooted in the democratic culture of the Austrian people. Representatives of the artistic direction have been V.A. Mozart and L. van Beethoven. Each of them was a bright personality. Mozart’s style was more typical lyric-dramatic start. The style of Beethoven – was the embodiment of heroic pathos of struggle. However, along with the differences which result in unique individuality of each of these composers, their combined realism, life-affirming and democratic beginning.
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Art of Viennese classics made into world music a powerful jet of realistic and democratic, based on the wealth of folk art, and because it has preserved for us all of its value and artistic significance. Creativity of Mozart occupies a special place in the Viennese Classical School. In his classic works of rigor and clarity of form united with deep emotion. Music composer is close to the directions in the culture of the second half of the XVIII century. Also, there were converted to human feelings “Storm and Stress”, part sentimentalism, and by Mozart was first shown the contradictory inner world of the individual.
According to SolomonHYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maynard_Solomon” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maynard_Solomon”Maynard (1995), Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg (Austria). With a phenomenal musical ear and memory, he was already in his early childhood, he learned to play the harpsichord, and in five years, wrote the first essay. First teacher of the future composer was his father, Leopold Mozart – Orchestra Musician Archbishop of Salzburg. Mozart brilliantly mastered not only the harpsichord, but also organ and violin, and was famous as a brilliant improviser. When he was six years old, he toured Europe. At eleven, he created the first opera “Apollo et Hyacinthus”, and fourteen had already conducted in a theater in Milan at the premiere of his own opera “Mitridate, King of Pontus”. Around the same time, he was elected a member of the Philharmonic Academy of Bologna.
Like many musicians of that era, Mozart was on the court service (1769-1781) – he was the accompanist and organist for the Archbishop of Salzburg. However, the independent character of the wizard causes a sharp displeasure with the archbishop, and Mozart chose to leave the service. Of the outstanding composers of the past he was the first who chose to live as a free artist. In 178,1 Mozart moved to Vienna, where he had a family. He earned rare editions of his own, piano lessons and performances.
Particular attention is paid to Mozart opera. His works – are an epoch in the development of this kind of music. Opera has attracted the composer by the opportunity to show the relationship of people, their feelings and aspirations. Mozart did not try to create a new operatic form – novel itself was his music. In the mature works of the composer abandoned the strict demarcation of the opera on a serious and comic – there was music and drama performance in which these elements are intertwined. As a consequence, in the operas of Mozart has not unambiguously positive and negative characters, the characters are vibrant and multifaceted, not bound by the role.
Mozart often turned to literary sources. So the opera “Le Nozze di Figaro” (1786) was written on the play by French playwright Beaumarchais “Crazy Day or The Marriage of Figaro”, which was banned by the censor. The main theme of the opera – is love, which, however, can be said of all the works of Mozart. However, there is in the product and the social implications: Figaro and his beloved Susanna are smart and energetic, but they are of humble origin. They were only servants in the house of Count Almaviva. Their opposition to master (stupid and fooled aristocrat) elicits the sympathy of the author – it is clear that he was on the side of love.
In the opera “Don Giovanni” (1787), he received his musical incarnation of the medieval story of the seducer. Energetic, temperamental, capricious and free of all moral norms, the hero confronts in the face of a Commander of a higher power, a symbol of reasonable order. Philosophical generalization neighbors here with amorous intrigues and genre and household items. Tragic and the comic form an indissoluble unity. It would seem that justice prevails in the final – sin (Don Giovanni) punished. But the music of the opera is thinner and harder this simplified understanding of the product: it gives the listener sympathy for the hero, remains true to herself even in the face of death.
Philosophical tale “The Magic Flute” (1791) was written in the zingshpil genre. The main idea of the work – the inevitable victory of good over evil, calls for fortitude, to love, to understand its ultimate meaning. Heroes of the opera are serious tests (silence, fire, water), but worthy of overcoming them and reach a realm of beauty and harmony.
As a representative of the Viennese Classical School, Mozart attached great importance to the genre of the symphony. Especially popular are the last three symphonies – Thirty-ninth, fortieth and forty-first (“Jupiter”), created in 1788. Works of this genre finally anchored four-part cycle, and the rules of the sonata form. Symphonies by Mozart include a variety of subtle emotional nuances. Topics are often uneven in nature, challenging the rhythm, sometimes accompanied by sharp run harmonies, but the music remains honed, clear form.
According to SolomonHYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maynard_Solomon” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maynard_Solomon”Maynard (1995), Mozart also became one of the founders of the genre of classical concert. The basis of competition concert soloist and orchestra, and this process is always subject to strict logic. Composer has written twenty-seven concerts for piano and orchestra, and seven for violin and orchestra. In some works of listeners struck a masterly skill, festivity, in other dramatic and emotional contrasts.
Mozart piano works include nineteen sonatas, in which he continued to develop the sonata form, as well as essays in the genre of fantasy (of music based on improvisation and free form). The composer refused harpsichord and clavichord, in comparison with the piano softer, but weak sound. Mozart piano style – was a clear, elegant, with well crafted melodies and accompaniment.
Mozart composed the music very easily, sometimes without drafts, creating works, unsurpassed in artistic beauty and harmony. Musicians, contemporaries appreciated talents of Mozart, but most of the aristocratic audience did not understand his work, and in recent years, the composer’s life did not take at all. Mozart died in poverty and was buried in Vienna in a common grave.
“Music should strike a light from the human breast” – a word of German composer Ludwig van Beethoven, whose works belong to the highest achievements of musical culture. Beethoven’s worldview evolved under the influence of the Enlightenment ideals of freedom and the French Revolution. The music of his work on the one hand, continued the tradition of Viennese classicism, on the other – depicted features of the new romantic art. From classicism in the works of Beethoven upland content, excellent possession musical forms, genres appeal to the symphonies and sonatas. From Romanticism is depicted bold experimentation in the field of these genres, the interest in vocal and piano miniatures.
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According to Peter J. Davies (2002), Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn (Germany) in a family court musician. He began studying music since childhood under the guidance of his father. However, the present mentor, Beethoven was a composer, conductor and organist. He taught the young musician of composition, taught to play the clavier and organ. With eleven years of Beethoven served as assistant organist at the church, then the court organist, accompanist to the opera house in Bonn. At eighteen he entered the University of Bonn in the Department of Philosophy, but did not finish it.
In 1792, Beethoven moved to Vienna. He took music lessons from Haydn, Albrechtsberger, Salieri (the biggest musicians of the era). Beethoven soon began giving concerts, became popular. He wrote a lot: he wrote sonatas, concertos for piano and orchestra, symphonies.
For a long time, no one guessed that Beethoven was struck with a serious illness – he began losing hearing. Convinced of the incurable illness, the composer decided to retire from life and in 1802 prepared a will, which explained the reasons for his decision. However, Beethoven was able to overcome despair and found the strength to write music on. Exit from the crisis was the third (“Eroica”) Symphony. In 1803-1808 composer also worked on the creation of the sonatas, in particular the Ninth for violin and piano (1803), Twenty-Three for piano, Fifth and Sixth Symphonies (both of 1808). Sixth (“Pastoral”) Symphony is subtitled “Memoirs of rural life.” This work paints a different state of the human soul, suspended for the time of the inner experiences and struggles. It was symphony of the feelings arising from contact with the natural world and rural life. Its unusual structure had five parts instead of four. In the symphony there are elements of fine art, onomatopoeia (birds singing, thunder, etc.). Beethoven’s findings were subsequently used by many Romantic composers.
Premiere of the symphony took place in 1825 at the Vienna Opera House. To implement the author’s intention theater orchestra was not enough, we had to invite fans: Twenty-four violins, ten violas, twelve cellos and basses. For the Viennese classical orchestra, such a train, it was unusually powerful. In addition, each choir parts (bass, tenor, alto and soprano) include twenty four singers, which also exceeded the conventional norm. During the life of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony for many remains unclear, she admired only by those who knew him closely the composer and his students and educated in music listeners. Over time, the symphony began to include in its repertoire the best orchestras of the world, and it has found new life.
According to Peter J. Davies (2002), Works of the late period was characterized by restraint of the senses and the philosophical depth that distinguishes them from the passionate and dramatic early writings. During his life, Beethoven wrote 9 symphonies, 32 sonatas, 16 string quartets, the opera “Fidelio”, “Missa Solemnis”, 5 piano concertos and one for violin and orchestra, the overture, the individual pieces for different instruments. Surprisingly, many works (including the Ninth Symphony), the composer wrote when he was already completely deaf. However, his recent works – sonatas for piano and the quartet – are great masterpieces of chamber music.
Thus, I would like to say that Beethoven and Mozart affected classical music dramatically. It is difficult to overestimate their contribution and influence on the development of classical music. Masters of this style sought to clear and strict forms, harmonious patterns, and the embodiment of high moral ideals. Higher, the finest examples of art works they considered an ancient art, so that worked out ancient stories and images.
Vertex in the development of musical classicism was the work of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven, who worked mainly in Vienna and formed a line in the musical culture of the second half of XVIII – early XIX century – the Viennese Classical School.
The composers of the Viennese classical school have created a very harmonious and logical system of rules of construction works. Thanks to this system, the most complex feelings donned in a clear and perfect form. Suffering and joy have become the subject of reflection for the composer, rather than experience. The art of the Viennese classics has great value and artistic significance for all mankind.
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