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Billboards And Transit Advertisements Media Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Media
Wordcount: 5355 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Another research “Street Smart ” was a successful pedestrian and bicycle safety program implemented in 2002, to educate the public on the severity of this problem and to promote pedestrian participation organizations concerned about the public safety issue, and funded by several Districts, countries and stat e agencies. Pedestrians were targeted with a variety of outdoor opportunities .12 posters were placed in key Metro stations around the area. 65 bus backs were created and placed on buses. They were targeted to reach pedestrians running to catch buses three posters were produced which dealt with pedestrian behaviors and safety issues. One side was printed in English, with the second side in Spanish. These were distributed for display in government buildings, schools, and libraries, parking garages, grocery stores and various events, In order to validate the campaign and judge effectiveness of the effort, a longitudinal tracking study was conducted both before and after the campaign. Evaluation goals were to discover if public awareness of pedestrian and bicycle safety issues was increased. Awareness of the advertising and public relations campaign for Street Smart increased. Awareness of the advertising and public relations campaign for Street Smart increased significantly between the pre-campaign survey and post-campaign survey among motorists 18 to 44 years of age, although there was a significant increase in awareness of the “Street Smart Campaign” to make drivers aware of pedestrians and the laws to yield to them in crosswalks. Hence outdoor medium played a significant role in bringing awareness among people.

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In country India, Coca Cola keep up to the Polio Pulse program, elevated attentiveness throughout outdoor promotion in appearance of hoardings, posters and banners, community declaration on the behalf of company’s circulation motor vehicles and improving workers helpers on vaccination axis and also for activate communities. The Government of India prepared to launch the biggest polio vaccination force in 2000, In India Coca Cola and International Rotary declared a foremost nationwide partnership to help the Government’s hard works to struggle for the mortal syndrome. It was later calculated (not scientifically) that a large majority of people responded by dropping suggestion in the suggestion boxes. Moreover it was observed that during this campaign the sale revenue of Coca Cola increased. There were at least 35 billboards: Coca Cola India and Rotary International also funded 15-transit advertisement. Their target was not only rural but sub- urban areas as well. The campaign was successful in bringing awareness and perception and outdoor medium proved to be an integral part of the media, playing a positive role in the society.

If we talked about health care issues, Outdoor advertising plays a very fundamental role. On August 10, 1995, President Clinton announced some steps and plans to restrict the “advertising, promotion, distribution and marketing of cigarettes to teenagers (White House Press Release 1995, P. 1). The Government stress on young people to prove identity or show ID card to buy a cigarette and also Government broadcast that billboards advertising cigarettes or smokeless tobacco near playgrounds and schools should be forbidden. Another restriction that Government imposes on Advertising is that Image that attracts Minors is not being appreciated on the billboards. The marketing campaigns used for cigarettes to minor are banned and the ban includes items ranging from single-cigarette sales, T-shirts, and gym bags to the sponsorship of sporting events. The FDA wants to educate the people to start raising funds to and implement an annual $150 million campaign aimed at stopping minors from smoking (White House Press Release 1995, P. 2). Another Goal of U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is to reduce half of the number of minors who start smoking. The 1994 Surgeon General’s Report (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 1994, p. 5) found that over three million children smoke cigarettes and a supplementary one million teenager males use smokeless tobacco also daily 3000 youths become regular smokers (Institute of Medicine 1994, p.8). The younger the age that a person starts to smoke the superior the chance of becoming a heavy smoker (cf. Escobedo et al. 1993; Taioli and Wynder, 1991). Seventy percent of minors who do smoke apologize for their assessment and 66% would like to give up (George H. Gallup International Institute 1992, p. 54). Although the smoking rates for adults have declined, the smoking rates of minors have failed to decline in a decade. In the FDA’s (1995) “Proposed Rules,” Section 897.30(a) sets out acceptable forms of advertising. Advertising that has the cigarette or smokeless tobacco product brand name (unaccompanied or in combination with any other word) or any other indicia of tobacco product classification may appear only in newspapers, magazines, journals or other publications; on billboards, posters, and placards (in accordance with section 897.30b). Another Section 897.30(a) deals with advertising of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco goods to adults. The use of color is not prohibited in these advertisements. The advertisements may have slogans, symbol, and other forms of categorization. Imagery is allowed, because the effect on young people would be nominal. Section 897.30(a) places no limitations on advertisements for tobacco products in adult publications. Projected Rule Section 897.30(b) states that no outdoor advertising, such as billboards, posters, or placards, may be placed within 1000 feet of any playground, elementary school, or secondary school (p. 41374). The projected policy put out numerous separate restrictions on advertising. The first illustrates acceptable forms of advertisements in adult publications (Section 897.30a) and a more preventive format in publications that are understand by those less than 18 years of age (Section, 897.32). The second exclude outdoor advertising within 1000 feet of schools and play- grounds (Section, 897.30b). The third prohibits the marketing of sales promotion items (e.g., T-shirts) bearing any indicia of product recognition and prohibits the funding of events in the brand name (Section, 897.34). The rationale behind the conventions is not to avoid all sales of tobacco products, but the sale of these products to children and teenagers. The projected guideline limiting the design of advertising to minors should withstand a legal challenge. The Division of Health and Human Services has various studies to express the connection among smoking and health risks. The smoking velocity started to turn down later than cigarette advertisements were forbidden from the electronic medium. The projected limitations on outdoor advertising and the proposed ban of promotional matter also are expected to survive legal inspection. Governmental history supports this vision. So it can now rightly be said that Outdoor media can play a vital role in the society norms and prevents any discrepancy.

Continuation of Outdoor advertisement related with marketing and restrictions, it is said that the U.S cigarette companies have been under pressure for decades. The most major problem facing by U.S tobacco industry is the Food and Drug Administration’ (FDA) rule. The rules for FDA are to restrict the sale and distribution of tobacco products to children (60 Fed. Reg. 41314). After only one year of this restriction the FDA announced and intended to protect children from using tobacco products. (61 Fed. Reg. 44396). Here the role of Outdoor advertisement is for social purpose. Through advertising you can convey bad message as well as creative and constructive message and for that FDA bans the cartoon images to protect the children from taking tobacco habits. Only advertisement allows portraying the people such as Marlboro cowboy. The FDA also rule, that advertising should not be in white backgrounds and black text. The specific rule that had been taken by FDA for outdoor advertisement was to ban all billboards within 1000 feet of schools and playgrounds and limit all outdoor advertisement to black and white only. According to FDA agreement all transit advertisement including sign in stadiums, arenas, shopping malls, video gaming centers related with tobacco industry must be prohibited. Here the main problem is for the retailers and the manufacturers of the tobacco industries. Hence the proposed settlement was to ban all outdoor advertisement even if advertising is inside a retail store that was visible from outside so it is not surprising that tobacco industry suffers tobacco marketing restrictions. So it can now rightly be said that outdoor media advertisement played a key role for creating perception of the people. If you do outdoor advertisement for social cause then definitely it creates impact to the people by generating awareness. So outdoor media is a unique and effective media for communicating with the people. Hence understanding the importance of this media, government implements certain rules and regulations.

More lately, (Pollay, 1986) recommended that advertisement is so persistent, rhythmic, and specialized that involuntarily it can affect our society in both negative and positive way as a entertaining institution. Furthermore, (Lantos, 1987) accomplished that advertising imperfectly reflects our lives, although it can strengthen and accelerate the pace of social change. A very interesting fact is that the majority of disapproval of advertising from those who focus on advertising social functions. A quote from a Stanford historian amplifies this concern.

Although it wields a huge social authority, comparable to the influence of religion and learning, it has no social goals and no social accountability for what it does with its influence so long as it refrains from palpable violations of truth and decency. It is this lack of institutional responsibility, this lack of inborn social purpose to balance social power which, I would argue, is a basic cause for concern about the role of advertising (Potter 1954, p. 177).

In 1959, the National Industrial Conference Board carries out a survey between advertisers to find out the common areas of concern for advertising management. As a result of their survey, the Board initiated major studies dealing with the following topics:

Estimated spending strategies.

Pre-testing advertising.

Evaluating media and determining advertising efficiency.

In additional words, all of these conclusion making areas are apprehensive with civilizing the efficiency of the advertising effort, but they imagine that the firm’s strategic decision to advertise was sound. So it can now rightly be said that advertising is a much additional effective promotional tool for escalating brand demand in some manufactured goods/market situations than others. Booming advertising depends on the correct combination of several factors. The most of these factors includes (The Economic Effects of Advertising, Neil Borden)

The tendency of demand in the exacting industry is supposed to be getting higher.

There are supposed to be an opening to encourage particular demand.

There is considerable chance for product discrimination.

Consumer happiness depends on unknown characters that can’t be easily evaluate at the time of acquire.

Powerful emotional buying motivation survives.

The arrangement of potential unit sales time’s rate of gross margin must be high sufficient to authorize necessary advertising expenditures in the particular product.

So the basic purpose of advertising appraisal system explained above is to discover what role advertising should play in completing the marketing goals of the firm. The process of setting advertising objectives has the benefit of supporting management in setting objectives which are responsive to conditions within the firm, the market, and the economic environment.

The strategic importance of the appraisal conclusion in the series of advertising management decisions is demonstrated as under.

Figure 2.1

This structured procedure that described above is to suggest relieve to managerial resolution making.

Advertising in Pakistan

Advertising industry in Pakistan has flourished immensely and has bought handsome revenue to the country. Advertising in Pakistan according to Aurora, a bi-monthly magazine published by Dawn Group of publication in November -December 2004 edition, Maryam Ali Baig writes ‘despite the endemic weakness of Pakistan’s economy in the last 10 years, the advertising industry has seen growth during this period.’ Moreover, the total worth of the advertising market in 2002 was, according to Gallup estimates, 8.1 billion rupees. (135 million dollars annually).

Advertisers in Pakistan cater almost all the needs of the people. There are all types of advertising being done in Pakistan. Due to innovation in technology and graphics advertising in Pakistan has taken a new step. The advertisers now urge for the very best for their product.

Brief History of Advertising in Pakistan

Advertising was first seen in form of print in Pakistan. Newspaper was the first medium for the advertising later. Magazines and other form were chosen for advertising. Radio also aired advertising, after all these advertisements were bringing in, profits with them. Television emerged late in broad medium of Pakistan. However, it became an effective medium for the advertisers. Not only international products, but also national products were advertised on television. Advertising agencies with the advancement in technology adopted new trends. Outdoor advertising became an integral part for any commercial or non-commercial advertising. Although being the oldest medium, it was recognized later in Pakistan.

Advertising Media in Pakistan

The advertising media being used in Pakistan is covering almost all international standards. The advertisement media in Pakistan includes: Broadcast (Television, radio), Print (Newspaper, Magazines, Pamphlets, Broachers, Banners), outdoor (Billboards, Transit Advertising, Electronic Billboard, Posters), below the line (Loyalty Cards, Buntings, other stationary items).

Advertising in Pakistan, has set new parameters designed for development in many grounds. Like many other fields, advertising in Pakistan, is playing a positive role in progression for the country. Advertising itself, has many roles which it performs in many any society. Pakistani society, on the whole is based on religious governing comprising of sacred norms and folkways. There are certain dos and don’ts in any society. Advertisers are bound to follow these norms for their own good will and success. Advertising in Pakistan is performing all these roles. Advertisers in Pakistan follow the given norms and values of the society. For example, it is unethical to advertise anything regarding sexual context, Champaign advertisement, or anything against National Integrity of Pakistan. Furthermore, it is unethical to advertise anything about any religion. Advertising is playing a vital role in Pakistani society both economically and socially. It is catering for the needs of the audiences in many ways for example, by providing them consumer good services, informing them about new products, entertaining them with new methods and last but not the least, performing many social cause tasks to gain goodwill and publicity for their name.

Functions of Advertising in Pakistan

Advertising performs four main functions in any society.

To Inform

To interpret

To entertain

To persuade

In Pakistan, the advertising takes the responsibility of informing people about new products and services. This is not only in commercial use but non-commercial field as well. The advertisers select the media for transmission of their message accordingly to the requirement of the product/service. The audiences’ are informed through various mediums of mass communication. It is generally observed, that many times people don’t know the importance or value of the product or service. Hence, it is the responsibility of the advertiser that he interprets the core meaning of the product/ service in the right manner. In Pakistan advertising share a healthy and sometimes conflicting competition. Various products/ services require different types of entertainment. There are many new trends being brought into this field. For instance, Hilal Sweets has taken the initiative of bringing in banded songs for their products. Pakistani advertising also carries other elements such as celebrity endorsement, transformational advertisement. Advertising in Pakistan, Has given a boost to the economy of Pakistan. The main function of advertising in although to persuade the audience’s to actually purchase or adopt their product and service. Although, persuasion alone doesn’t complete the entire function. It is interconnected with other functions to be a success.

Tools of Advertising in Pakistan

Some important tools for advertising in Pakistan are newspaper, magazine, radio, television, direct mail and mail order, outdoor display and transportation. (Tariq khan, 2001)


The reading habits of Pakistani society are not healthy as compare to the broadcast medium. Another reason can be of low rate of literacy. Yet, mostly the advertisements are targeting to the audience through newspaper, magazines, pamphlets and many other forms of print. It can also be the reason of flexibility of the coverage aspect. Other than that fresh and new advertising can also be done through newspapers. For instance, Mobilink, a famous cellular company in Pakistan recently launched its testing campaign through print and then finally executed in the newspaper. Magazines are also a source of advertising in Print. They are further divided into many categories. For instance, a fashion magazine covers all the aspects of fashion and advertising what is new and what are the coming trends. They are not as popular for advertising as they are a bit expensive and probably not the feasible medium for people.


Television is a dynamic force in the advertising field. In Pakistan, advertising is heavily relay upon television.There are various time slots as morning time transmission, noon, prime time and nighttime transmission. Mostly prime time is selected for advertisements. The Viewer ship of this time slot, in comparison with others is high. There is also an aura of glamour and excitement about television, which extends to the products being advertised like newspaper and radio also depends upon advertising. In Pakistan radio is an effective medium of mass communication. It has a wide scope and is capable of nation-wide as well as local presentation. Due to its reach in villages it can also attract agricultural, fertilizer and pesticides advertising. Like television, radio also has a proper time to advertise these products/services. These advertisements are aired when the listeners are not engaged in other activities.


Outdoor advertising in Pakistan can be tailored to cover a specific area and the whole city as well. In Pakistan, the outdoor advertising enjoys the distinctly visual advantages of color, size and locations. Billboards and chalking on walls are stationary tools of outdoor advertising. Whereas transit is the mobile tool of outdoor advertising

Significance and scope of Advertising in Pakistan

In Pakistan, advertising is message industry that plays a major role in shaping the content and operation of the mass media. Advertising plays an important role in our culture. It not only shapes our lifestyles but also reflects what our cultural norms are. Furthermore, Pakistan being a developing country does face hurdles in this field. There are certain norms, which should not be violated while designing any advertisement. (Abbas Qamar, 2001).

Advertising Done in Pakistan for social cause

Before discussing various types of social advertising being done here in Pakistan an overlook on the meaning and importance of the word social has to be comprehended. Further why is it associated with advertising?

The word Social comes from Latin language ‘socialis’ meaning ally, associate. According to dictionary it means ‘involving allies or confederates’. In context of the meaning it can be said that social is involving, interacting or conflicting with each other or with the environment. It would be more appropriate if social is taken in terms of society. The meanings given above indicate to involvement. But involvement with whom? Obviously with each other and that is done in any group, which is a semi part of any society.

It is understood that social leads in reference to society and in any society many functions need to be sustained. Any society may be comprehensively described as an organized community of people who live and function in a single social medium. Thus, it can be said that society may have many other divisions. Any society can be divided into further divisions such as health, political, educational, legislative, environmental and social. In context of the previous discussion it can be said that society has various divisions and sub divisions. In Pakistani society, the advertising medium is being done in various sectors. Some of them are discussed below.

Health Advertising

The Ministry of Health in Pakistan has taken measures to promote the message of the institution. For this purpose they have chosen various mediums to promote these issues. A successful example of this may be polio campaigns around Pakistan. The techniques used by them are similar to the advertising techniques. Another example cited here can be HIV/AIDS. Both issues are being highlighted in a very successful manner. There are some don’ts in making of the later advertisement, which are observed strictly in making of the advertisement. Every medium has different reach and frequency and they are selected on those basis.

Political Advertising

During elections and other political rallies, advertising of the political parties plays a significant role in promoting good name for them. For this purpose, various techniques are used. There are respective advertising messages done by them. More ever, social advertising in this aspect makes a feasible change in their voting list. In Pakistan, even to-date these rallies and elections use orthodox methods in promoting their message more effectively.

Legislative Advertising

In Pakistan, the main body is the Legislative body. For the government, the taxes implied for any advertisement is reduced. In addition, government takes measures to advertise in welfare of public as well as for their own interest.

Educational Advertising

In Pakistan, education is the most talked issue of today. Successful examples were Punjab Educational Program and another example is of National Development Housing in Karachi. The purpose is to create awareness among people about educating their children and giving them best in life. For this objective, advertising techniques are used to promote the cause.

Outdoor Social Issues

Other than the above-mentioned issues, there are social issues being highlighted in advertising. They are advertised either by any company as their social responsibility, or by any non-governmental organization to promote any social cause. For instance, advertising of women rights through various mediums.

Social responsibility

Social Advertising has developed tremendously in Pakistan. Companies usually support particular causes or sectors and adopt these through a comprehensive and complicated internal decision making process. For Instance McDonald Pakistan hosted Worldwide Children Day. Moreover, they raised funds for the helpless children.

Shell Pakistan Assigns a certain percentage of its net profits to social investment that is unrelated to branding. The five key areas shell supports are: health, education, community welfare, heritage and environment. These are in line with its commitment to sustainable development.

The Dalda Campaign aimed at raising fifty hundred thousand rupees for the Shoukat Khanum Memorial Hospital. Dalda placed billboards at prominent locations in the major as well as smaller cities of Pakistan. After sometimes of this campaign, Dalda informed its consumer that about thirty hundred thousand rupees were raised for this purpose.


3.1 Method of Data Collection & Procedure

For data collection, I had to go to common people and interview with the respondent. Asking them about their age and giving them the questionnaire. As the sample was mostly the mobile audience, I had to wait with them until they had finished the questionnaire. The sample size for the research was one hundred and one hundred questionnaire was finalized.

3.2 Sampling Technique

Convenience sampling technique was used. The sample for conducting this research comprised of both male and female .Mostly they were selected from the public places.

3.3 Sample Size

The sample size for this research was 100.

Instruments of Data Collection

Keeping in view the requirement of the study a questionnaire comprising ten questions was constructed. Mostly close-ended questions were opted in which respondents were asked to select an answer among a list.

3.6 Statistical Technique

After data collection, data was designed with the help of SPSS for composing thesis script. Technique of one way ANOVA has been used to test the variables.


4.1 Findings and Interpretations of the results

Technique One way ANOVA

Dependent variable = Social Cause (Average of Q 6,7,8,9, 10)

Independent variable is found in question no 2, which depends on 5 categories

a) AIDS Awareness b) Anti smoking

c) Reckless driving e) Health cause

d) Drug/Alcohol abuse

Test of Homogeneity of Variances

Table 4.1

Social. Cause

Levine Statistic








Assumption of homogeneity of variance is not violated


Table 4.2

Social. Cause

Sum of Squares


Mean Square



Between Groups






Within Groups







Sig value is greater than 0.05 which shows that the mean difference between all categories is not significant.


Table 4.3

Social. Cause



Std. Deviation

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval for Mean



Lower Bound

Upper Bound

AIDS Awareness









Anti smoking









Reckless driving









Health cause









Drug/Alcohol abuse


















4.2 Hypotheses Assessment Summary

According to this table, the mean value for all social causes is around 4 that reflect the highly significant effect of out door advertisement in creating perception and awareness for social cause. This shows that the hypothesis reflects a positive role of social advertisement in bringing awareness and perception for social cause. The awareness level for all the causes are there. People know the effectiveness of social advertisement.

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5.1 Conclusion

According to the research and the research result, the study shows that there is the positive role of outdoor social advertisement for bringing perception and awareness for social causes. People show the outdoor advertisements and create perception for certain causes. For Example in Reckless driving cause, people daily see the road signs of using helmet while driving a motorcycle, we also see a common slogan for reckless driving “Speed thrills but kills” or the people also see the speed limits while driving. So there is an awareness level build inside the people.

5.2 Discussion

The outside screening viewers are mostly portable. The Public take a trip rapidly in automobiles or walk at a quick speed as they execute the movement of everyday life. Accurately measuring the mobile audience is very difficult however, for this research survey method was used. For this purpose the sample selected was 100 (n=100). The sample selected was divided into three age groups that are 20-25, 26-30 and 31-36 respectively. The age groups include male and female both. “Awareness levels are not significantly different between men and women regarding outdoor that is seen and remembered by a greater proportion of 16-44 olds”. The sample was divided, in three age groups to analyze, the awareness of the social outdoor advertising. The first group was basically: chosen in order to, analyze their awareness regarding social outdoor advertising. The people of this age group are young, and they are probably more inclined towards adopting new trends and change. The second age group was selected in general, because these people are heading towards, their practical and professional life and they probably take more practical measures to imply these social message in their life. The people of the third age group are probably more learned and experienced. It has generally been observed that people of this age group are mostly reluctant towards innovation .So, to see if social outdoor advertising has been successful in bringing awareness in their already formed ideas and concepts, this age group has been selected.

All the institutions within society have some responsibility for helping to maintain social harmony through proper stewardship of families and companies exercise of honesty and integrity in all relationships, adherence to accept ethical standards, willingness to assist various segments of the society, and the courtesy to respect the privacy of others. Furthermore, media being an integral part of society plays an important role in any society. Outdoor is considered to be one of the oldest advertising mediums, yet technology has provided an opportunity to develop creative, eye-catching messages. The need to convey the social messages to a large number of people at same pace and time has been provided by social outdoor advertising. This research is based on ‘Role of outdoor advertisement in bringing perception and awareness for social cause’. Thus, the survey leads me to the conclusion that the hypothesis is correct in empathizing that outdoor advertisement plays a positive role in bringing perception and awareness for social cause’.


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