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The Real Situation Of Water Pollution In Vietnam Environmental Sciences Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Environmental Sciences
Wordcount: 1839 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Water is a very vital source for human being and creature. In our daily life, there are no days people do not use water. Estimate there are about 250 liters of water is used for daily activities, 1,500 liters is used for industry and 2,000 liters is used for agriculture. Water, which covers about 99% weights of creatures live in it and 44% of human weight of body. To manufacture one tone of paper need 250 tons of water, one tone of nitrate fertilizers need 600 tons of water and the amount of water need for producing one tons of rice flour is 1000 tons of water (Vietnam Environment Administration, 2009 ). We know how crucial water is, however; water is not ever lasting as people think. In fact, there are 97.2% is saline water, 2.15% is forever ice and only around 0.65% is water for human to exploit ( GEEC n. d ). Today, when living standard is increasing it is environment pollution including water pollution. It not only impact on people activities but also their health because of some disease are latent in dirty water. This project’s purpose is show information about the causes and effects of water pollution and how to deal with this problem.

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Discussion of finding

2.1. Definition of water pollution.

Water pollution is any chemical, biological, or physical change in water quantity that harmful influent in living organisms or that makes water unusable for desired uses. There are several classes of water pollutants. One is disease-causing agent, which include bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic worms that enter water from domestic sewage and untreated human and animal waste. According to a 1995 World Bank study, contaminated water causes about 80% of the disease in developing countries and kills about 10 million people annually- an average of 27,000 premature deaths per day, more than half of them children under age 5 (G. Tyler Miller, JR. 1997.)

2.2. The real situation of water pollution in Vietnam

Nowadays, in Vietnam, although the government is trying to apply the policy about protect environment, water pollution is one of the biggest problem of country. The most factors that contribute to water pollution is industrialization. In some development countries, water is polluted by sewage and waste from many companies. In the industrial effluent consists CN, which is 84 times as much as, H2S content is 4.2 times as much as and NH3 content is 84 times as much as permission standard.

In Tham Luong industrial zone in Ho Chi Minh City, water is polluted by 500,000 m3 sewage water per day which is released by making paper, washing-powder, dying and knitting companies. In Thai Nguyen city, industrial effluent come from manufacture iron like, iron and steel metallurgy, exploiting coal. In dry season, the amount of dirty water in Thai Nguyen city is about 15% discharge of Cau River. The waste water from producing paper, which has PH volume 8.4 to 9 and NH4 content is 4mg/1, with the high content of organic substance, water is brown and terrible smell.

According to a survey in Bac Ninh, there are a large amount of sewage without treatment that makes water in this area is polluted.

Water pollution situation in the big city is very clearly, especially in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. In those areas, the quantity of waste water from daily activities is directly let out canal, river or irrigation canal. There are many hospitals and chemical site have not got waste water treatment.

In Hanoi, total of sewage is 300,000 to 400,000 m3 /day. Recently, 5/31 chemical facilities have water proposal, amounting to 25% waste water from hospital. About 36/400 manufacture sites have water treatment. The volume of rubbish have not collected is 1,200 m3/day and they are let out the area around the lake, canal in the urban. The BOD index, NH4, NO2, NO3 in water in the city is beyond too much as the acceptation.

In Ho Chi Minh City the amount of garbage in per day is 4,000 tons, 24/124 producing facilities got water treatment.

Not only in Hanoi or Ho Chi Minh City get water pollution, but also in some metropolitan such as Hai Phong, Da Nang, Hue, Nam Dinh, Hai Duong, many index in water is 5 or even 20 times as much as permission standard.

In suburban area, where the living standard is still backward, all the rubbish are not treated and infiltrated into soil that makes the environment pollution more and more serious.

In farming method, because of abusing of herbicide, the water in rivers, canals, lakes are extremely polluted and effect on people health.

According to Ministry of Agriculture, total quantity for farming water creature in 2001 is 751,999 ha. Because of the massive trend, short of technique and not follow the schedule, that brings a drawback to environment. In the water, it starts appearing some bacteria and some kind of poison seaweed even red tide in some part of Vietnam (Hai Son Technology Join Stock Company – According to VOV).

Besides the reason of industrialization and the booming of population that makes environment is polluted. It is also because of running in policy of the government and the awareness of civilian. To protect environment, government and population should work together to make it effective.

2.3. Causes and effect of water pollution in Vietnam

There are many causes lead to water pollution. Some of them play an essential part in making water being polluted are organic, inorganic, industrial and agriculture. One main cause of this issue is waste water come from many companies and then being pulled out water bodies, especially into rivers or seas, because this is the most convenient way of treating waste water. Industrial waste consists of some kind of chemical substance such as sulphur, which is harmful for marine life. Asbestos are known as the main reason of cancer disease. Nitrates and phosphates that are derived from fertilizers can be risk to marine environment. Oil, which comes from boat or ship or some time they are the result of exploit illegal in petrol resource that could be the explanation about the deaths of fishes or sea-birds (buzzle n. d). Example, Cancer has become a popular disease in Tu Lac village. “Hundreds of people have died of cancer so far in my village. Now the village is not called “Tu Lac” but called “Tu Tiet” (all dead),” a girl said. Some years ago, the public was stunned by the discovery about the “cancer commune” of Thach Son in Lam Thao district, located not far from the Lam Thao fertilizer plant. Nearly ten people die of cancer every year.

Another major cause that making water pollution. Every day people do everything that waste of water, for instance, wash hands, cars, dishes shower and so on. Let’s think about the way people use water in public place and where they will end up. In some development cou

ntries, all waste water is treated before dumping to the water bodies. Yet in the others countries almost of water is not treated instead of flowing directly into the sea (eschooltoday n. d). The action related to the water surface is happening every day. Oil spills makes up around 12% of oil that dump into the ocean that leads to many problems are extremely harmful to local marine wildlife. Since they are not dissolving and suffocate fish, caught in the feathers of sea-birds that preventing them from fling. Consequence, some animals died (Environmental Pollution Center n.d).

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Another cause is the awareness of citizens, people always use water for many purposes and then they dump waste water or garbage directly into rivers, canal, and ponds and so on. In 2004, because of bird flu outbreak into Vietnam, people throw poultry to water body that make water highly polluted. Also since the poverty in living standard in suburban areas that bring many risk for environment especially for water, which effect on human and ecosystem ( Mrs. Nguyen Ngoc Lien n.d ).

Radioactive substance may be able to enter the water surface and groundwater by natural causes or because of human activities. According to a research about nuclear devices in the atmosphere has produced that has added radioactive substance particularly strontium-90, cesium-137 and iodine-131to water supplies. These chemical substances are impact on environment and human also (R. Swarup et al. 1992.)

2.4 Solution of water pollution in Vietnam

To deal with this problem, both Vietnam Government and citizen should work together. To begin with people attitude, they need to aware that water is very important for our life and do something such as one of the simplest methods to reduce water pollution is to use less water and avoid unnecessary wastage. This will cause less water to get contaminated, ultimately causing lesser water pollution. Using less artificial fertilizers and chemicals, and going in for organic farming will help in limiting water pollution, too. Growing a lot of plants in your garden will ensure that the fertilizers and chemicals used are utilized there, and do not go into the nearby water bodies. While going to seas, rivers, and lakes, taking the precaution of not throwing waste into them is all important. You may also like to clean up some of the litter there, which would make a small but sure difference (Answers, n. d). Second, government should give laws and strict with the site and organization that contribute to water pollution. Besides that need to educate people especially pupils and students to reduce water pollution.


Water is an essential source of human and eco-system. People and creature cannot live without water because water plays a very important role in people health and their daily activities. In fact, almost amount of water is used for human activities are come from rainfall. According to scientists, the rainfall in the world is about 105,000 km3 per year. The amount of water is used by people is around 35,000 km3 which are 8% for people daily activities, 23% for industry and 63% is used in agriculture (Vietnam Environment Administration, 2009). Water is one of the sources that is received from nature and every country in the world have its own source of water. Facing the issue of water pollution, the Vietnamese Government has established some new laws or policy to reduce some of environment worry especially water pollution which directly impact on people and their life. Because of the booming of population along with the urbanization and the industrialization that makes Vietnam facing to the issue of environment, especially the amount of water for daily activities become fewer and fewer ( VnExpress, 2012 ). Not only the Government tries to against water pollution but also citizen should contribute to this campaign. And people should be raise aware of surrounding throughout propaganda about it and together save environment to protect our life.


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