The business ethics report I want to write is about pollution. Pollution is the most important and most concern today. The environment pollution becomes a harmful level of pollutants in the natural resources – air, water, and land (soil), which these three natural resources is the main, causes the global warming.
Air pollution exists when a harmful amount of pollutants contains in air, such as dust, gases, smog or fumes. The pollutants could be harmful to health of humans and animals, or which may cause damage to plants (EPA Victoria, 2006). However, the existing issue of global warming is main cause by greenhouse gases (air) with major content of carbon dioxide (Teller et al., 1997).
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Water pollution main cause is runoff from agricultural fields and industrial sites, in which pollutants from agricultural fields and industrial sites in-flood to rivers and ocean. Other than air (oxygen) is main source for human survival; water was the second important source for human to survive. Additionally, water from forest always provides higher quality water, with the lower pollutants (Dudley and Stolton, 2003).
Environmental pollution also involves of land(soil) pollution which defined as a phenomenon characterized by the loss of structural and biological properties by the soil layer as cause by human and natural factors, such as strong wind, chemical use, and deforestation, in which land and forest also is home for millions of creatures (EHow, no date).
In this article, human factors inevitably encroached the forbidden zone such as deforestation of forest reserve, indirectly causes water and air pollution as well. The developers with the interest to build houses (Kampung Tersusun Anggerik) due to the growing population of Malays, and due to limited land, the development projects had been inevitably encroached the forbidden zone with the bulldozers, uprooting the old growth in forest reserve (Hilary, 2010). Therefore, the District Office issued a stop work-order action against the development project due to the following complaints from Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) (Hilary, 2010).
According to the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment issued strict and detailed guidelines to all Governments and Federal Agencies in connection with hill slope development, known as “the Garis Panduan Pembangunan di Kawasan Tanah Tinggi (GPPDKTT)”, in between 26° gradient and 35° gradient (measured on existing contours and not after cutting and filling) slopes development may considered as consult to detailed studies and evaluation, additionally, GPPDKTT prohibits any development in an area with a gradient of above 35 degrees (Fernandez, 2006). Refers to the article’s incident, the developer has no comply with GPPDKTT rules and regulation, wherein the project site has fall into Class 3 (above 26° gradient) and Class 4 (above 35° gradient) slopes which are environmentally dangerous areas that should not have any form of physical development (Hilary, 2010).
The residents living near to the project had opposed the development project and one of the residents comment that “we getting shock after heard about a human settlement are going to develop in the reserve forest and which are steeply slopes,” Mrs. Chong said (Hilary, 2010). In addition, Mrs. Chong insisted that they opposed it was not against the creation of a Malay village, but just to given an advised to relocated the development project to a safety place (Hilary, 2010). However, the director of Natural Forest Private Limited (Alam Rimba Sdn Bhd) Azmen Ahmad claimed that the title of land was approved by government 15 years ago, because of the shortage of land due to the growth population of Malays in Cameron Highlands (Hilary, 2010). Meanwhile, the developer claimed that the project had obtained a “work permit” from the Land and District Office. However, the District officer had refused to be interviewed and conveyed a text of “no comment” through his personal assistant (Hilary, 2010).
The impact of pollution
In my business report, I choose to do on environment pollution is one of the factors causes global warming. Nowadays, the global warming already become the personally responsible for every human in the world, and from the movie of Ice Age: Meltdown was on purposely to raise awareness of global warming (Kellstedt et al., 2008). In my article, human being with the development project (Kampung Tersusun Anggerik) deforestation the forest reserve had indirectly cause land (soil), water, and air pollution.
The human being uprooting the old growth in forest reserve have cause the incident of silting creeks that feed into the river (Sungai Tela), in which the river was main water supply for residents living at Cameron Highland (Hilary, 2010). However, uprooting the old growth or deforestation the forest reserve will impact landslides which will indirectly lead to rising temperatures as global warming (Hilary, 2010).
From the article, the incident of silting creeks that feed into the river was clearly showed that land pollution will impact water pollution. Besides, the river was the main water supply for residents staying at Cameron Highlands (Hilary, 2010). As mention on introduction, if well managed the water from forest, it will provides higher quality water with the less pollutants (Dudley and Stolton, 2003). Therefore, the development project on the article not only impact on polluted the land (soil), it’s also polluted the water from forest.
Therefore, the both land (soil) and water pollutions will indirectly increase the temperatures and then cause of the global warming. Global warming is main cause by greenhouse gases with major context of carbon dioxide (Teller et al., 1997). Carbon dioxide is use to enhance plant growth by photosynthesis process. In my article, if District Office did not take action against the development project, the forest being deforestation, the number of carbon dioxide will increase in the forest. At the end, the global warming issue will become more and more serious.
In my article is clearly shown the thesis that how people opposed the development project which is harmful to the natural environment by the impact of pollution. Land pollution is the main cause of the development process, wherein it is indirectly impact on air and water pollution. The pollution started from the landslides to rising temperatures, from the illegal uprooting old growth from the land to cause river contamination. These entire incidents were seriously harmful to their residents nearby.
In the article, the theory of egoism proven that people are applying in their personal lives as, they are morally right to make decision for their personal benefits instead of applying utilitarianism (Crane and Matten, 2007). The developers applying the egoism theory in their job to deforestation the forest reserve, and it caused the incident of silting creeks that feed into the river (Sungai Tela), where by the river was the main water supply for Cameron Highlands (Hilary, 2010). In social responsibility of business, the developers are morally right to make decision for their personal benefits. As Milton Friedman (1970) wrote that “there is one and only one social responsibility of business, businesses had no moral duty to “to good”, but only to increase the wealth of its shareholders by increasing profits.” In social responsibility developers may morally right with interest in building house for Malays due to the increasingly population, but in ethics theory they apply egoism in making decision for their own benefits only. Although the development project area was the forest reserve with the work permit approval, but there was a part of the forest reserve is steeply slope area wherein is not suitable for any physical development. The developers was clearly did not follow the rules and regulations (GPPDKTT) which strictly issued by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (Fernandez, 2006).
The egoism of pleasure is due to the philosophical opponents of utilitarianism, whereby utilitarianism is in an action with motive of morally right to gain a result for greatest amount of people satisfied with their needs and wants. From the philosophy utilitarianism of John Stuart Mill (1863) have been influential in modern economic theory, wherein the distribution of the happiness and minimize the unhappiness should be standardized to everyone by which actions are judged right or wrong (Henry, 2004). In the article, although the development project is build houses for the Malay villages due to the increasing population, however, in short term the will distributed the goods of houses to Malays, but in long term the houses in endanger the Malay villages which are staying on the steeply slopes houses. The residents who are staying nearby the development project had applied the utilitarianism ethics theory to voice up and opposed the development project, because a part of the forest reserve was in steeply slope hill site. o, if the project is on-going it will endanger the Malay residents who will stay at the steeply slope area in future. Additionally, the residents applied utilitarianism theory instead of egoism theory, wherein they opposed the development project was not against to Malays, just given an advised to relocated the development project to a safety place instead of build in a endanger steeply sloping hill (Hilary, 2010).
Ethics of duties
The ethics of duties theory is an act that shirt towards rules of utilitarianism. Philosopher Kant (1724-1804) discovers the ethics of duties theory is the fundamental moral law that would determined human’s action without regard to its consequences (White, 1993). In my article, we can seem that after consideration of the incident of the silting creeks, Land District Officers have do their job with applied the ethics of duties theory, in which issued the developer to stop working in the endanger area of development. Therefore, the District’s officer is only the important person to stop the incident run into a serious situation, where by the development project may impact more unlikely incidents to happen, such as land slide.
Ethics of duties
In antithesis, the ethics of duties theory is an act that shirt towards rules of egoism. In my article, the Land and District Officer and the developers had applied the egoism theory due to the interest of build houses for Malays and maximize shareholder’s profits, they had ignored the ethics of duties theory. As universal knowledge that forest reserve are not allow any developer to deforestation, in which under Act 313, National Forestry Act 1984 (Law of Malaysia, 2006). However, the Land and District Office had ignored the ethics of duty theory with giving the “work permit” to the developers to uprooting old growth in forest reserve to build houses in the dangerous steeply slope area.
Ethics of right
The ethics of right and justice theory come after the ethics of duties theory, and the ethics of right and justice theory explain that every individual in given situation with the result that everybody should get what they deserve. It’s related to philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) theory, he claimed that human should be entitled to the notion of right and moral right to gain the respected and protected in every action (Aldrich, 1999). In my article, the ethics of right theory was applied by the residents stay nearby the development project who opposed the development project, however, the District Officer only applied the ethics of right theory after incident of the silting creeks that feed into the river (Sungai Tela) and issued the stop-work order to developers.
Human who applied virtue ethics is contends with morally correct actions and behavior. Professor Sandra Borden proposes that virtue ethics theory refers to understanding of doing right thing and do thing right to addressing those ethical challenges (Borden, 2007). As the same, the Land and District Officers and the developers with the interest of profits had ignored virtue ethics, in which illegally deforestation steeply slope forest reserve to build house for Malays.
Feminist ethics theory
Feminist ethics theory is modern western ethics theory which Carol Gilligan(1982) approach to business ethics focuses on the importance of women have fairly different attitudes from men with significant impact on the way handled the ethical conflicts (Kuhse et al., 1998). In addition, feminist ethics theory is an approach to avoid harm for those principles such as peace and healthy social relationship, and care for one another. Thus, in my article the residents stay near to the development project had applied the feminist ethics theory to opposed the endanger development project, wherein they opposed it was not against to Malays and just as a simple meaning “care for one another”.
From the issued in my article, there are few related pollution acts:
Act A1286 Street, Drainage and Building (Amendment) Act 2007
Act A1286 Street, Drainage and Building (Amendment) Act 2007 (Law of Malaysia, 2007) is an Act related to “the Garis Panduan Pembangunan di Kawasan Tanah Tinggi (GPPDKTT).” GPPDKTT stated that there is not allowed any development in an area with a gradient of above 35 degrees with the measured on existing contours and not after cutting and filling (Fernandez, 2006). As a part of development project is an area with gradient of above 35 degrees, so, the land are protect by Act A1286, Street, Drainage and Building (Amendment) Act 2007, which prohibit for any development project (Law of Malaysia, 2007).
Act 313 National Forestry Act 1984
Act 313, National Forestry Act 1984 is an Act to provide for the administration, management and conservation of forests and forestry development within States of Malaysia and for connected purpose (Law of Malaysia, 2006). Therefore, forest reserve are protected by Act 313, National Forestry Act 1984, so, the Land and District Office is not allow to give any “work permit” to the any development project, because the development project is under the forest reserve area (Law of Malaysia, 2006). Thus, state government of Malaysia should take action against the Land and District Officer and the developers.
In conclusion, there are number of Acts playing their roles to protect our environment pollution, but somehow human who applied egoism theory for their own short-term or long-term benefits go against the Acts, for example, corruption.
In addition, pollution is the most serious issued for everyone to take care, especially air pollution, it is because human need oxygen to continue survives and forest most important green environment supplier us oxygen. Other than that, although business ethics theory had teach in our education, but there still are people who keep continue deforestation. Therefore, the rules of regulations (Acts) should be strictly to all people who inevitably encroached into forest reserve by punishments.
So, all of us should take responsible to our natural environment and stop people illegally deforestation the forest reserve. Every individual should be educated or adapted business ethics theories to save our globe from global warming.
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