The background of this study and brief description of the study settings were introduced in the previous chapter. This chapter includes concepts of evaluation and topic related with this study. It will go through some detailed related works on the study.
Nowadays, many companies and organizations evaluate their staffs based on their performance and achievement. Evaluations are important information about the results of department cooperation and for political decision-makers. Evaluation is important in order to contribute and improve development effectiveness, accountability of staffs, organizational learning, and improves decision-making.
2.1 Definition and Concept
The term “evaluation” is similarly easy to understand. People evaluate things all the time. By using formalized methods and principles, professional evaluators can help policy makers, program managers, and other interested parties obtain more evaluative information and more reliable and trustworthy data than might otherwise be available to them. There are many different definition of evaluation. Evaluation is an essential tool for making development programmes successful (Toole, 2008). Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness. Evaluation is the systematic collection and analysis of data needed to make decisions, a process in which most well-run programs engage from the outset. (Mediawiki, 2007). Rossi and Freeman (1993) define evaluation as “the systematic application of social research procedures for assessing the conceptualization, design, implementation, and utility of … programs.” The different dimensions of evaluation have formal names; process, outcome, and impact evaluation. An evaluation can be an important tool in improving the quality performance of staff to become more professional and improvement.
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2.2 Staff Evaluate and Appraisal
” Without high quality evaluation systems, we cannot know if we have high quality teachers and without capable, high quality teachers in America’s classrooms, no educational reform effort can possibly succeed” (Stronge & Tucker, 2003, p. 3). Staffs evaluation is about the quality of staff’s performance; then, its focus to help staffs to improve their performance as well as holding them accountability for their work. “In recent years, as the field of education has moved towards a stronger focus on accountability and on careful analysis of variables affecting educational outcomes, the teacher has proven time and again to be the most influential school-related force in student achievement” (Stronge, 2002). The basic needs in a quality staff evaluation system are for a fair and effective evaluation based on performance and designed to encourage improvement in both the staff being evaluated.
The performance improvement purpose reflects the need for professional growth and development of the individual staff, and typically has been considered to be formative in nature. In fact, evaluation systems that include both accountability and personal growth dimensions are both desirable and necessary for evaluation to productively serve the needs of individual teachers and the school and community at large. This conception of staff evaluation ties evaluation not only to staff improvement but also to school improvement. A staff performance assessment and evaluation system, properly designed and implemented, supports a balanced relationship between school or district-wide goals and individual staff professional growth and improvement.
2.3 Teachers’ Evaluation and Appraisal
Now the teacher evaluation assumed increasing importance. It concern about the quality of classroom teaching and teachers. The public views teacher evaluation as a major problem in the school system today (Soar and others, 1983). State legislatures, aware of the concern, want to mandate more effective evaluation. There many methods for evaluating teachers, such as measurement tests of teacher characteristics, student achievement test scores, and ratings of teachers’ classroom performance, have been ineffective. Some research has been done to improve the evaluation process, but teacher assessment, in general, remains unorganized. This digest provides information about evaluation types, criteria, methods, procedure, and successful evaluation strategies (Joan, 1986). Darling-Hammond and others (1983) define teacher evaluation as “collecting and using information to judge.” Teacher evaluation is a key used by school s to measure performance, determine accountability and identify improvement and also to understanding effective teacher practice, rewarding excellent performance, and improving training programs (Peterson, 1987). By the end, this evaluation process will ensure that the teachers are completely done and perform their jobs successfully.
There are three themes in educational practice and policy to consideration of teachers’ evaluation. First, is a reoccurring series of evaluation designs that directly involve teachers in formative and summative peer evaluation (Peterson, 2000). The second basic is a call for increased teacher professionalism includes form of peer review or evaluation (Cooper, 1988; Darling-Hammond, 1989). Finally ethical codes, to guide professional behavior have been established for an educational application (NEA, 1975; Sparks, 2000). Usually school districts use both formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is conducted for the purpose of improving a teacher’s performance by identifying strengths, weaknesses, and areas for improvement. Summative evaluation is conducted for the purpose of making personnel decisions about the teacher, such as merit pay, reassignment, promotion, dismissal, and tenure. Both this evaluation uses have received much attention in recent literature as the teaching profession considers evaluation an integral part of staff development and the administration looks to evaluation data as evidence in accountability debates.
2.4 Goals and Objectives in Teacher Performance Evaluation
Over 30 years old, evaluations in education program have expanded over the world. The Elementary and Secondary Education ACT (ESEA) in 1965 represented the compelling examples of the failure of federally mandated evaluations to improve educational policy and practice (McLaughlin, 1975). There are many goals and purpose for evaluation teachers. In Mexico, a Highly Objective Uniform Statewide Standard of Evaluation (HOUSSE) identify the purpose of evaluation is to assist in identifying and building upon teacher strengths, to address accountability and teacher quality and to serve as the basis for the improvement of instruction (Ball, 2005). Another purpose is to use all the information and effectiveness to upgrading school and with the comparison of evaluation it will encourage schools to improve their performance (McLaughlin, 1975). The Jackson Public School District has developed a performance evaluation system for teachers, and this system recognizes the need for orienting, inducting, and evaluating new employees or employees new to a position, evaluating employees who are experienced in their position, and offering professional growth options for commendable teachers who deserve an array of choices in meeting evaluation and growth goals.
The performance evaluations also used for capture and record employee results and determine whether they ready to get promoted or receive a salary increased. It also can used to identify gaps in training and to more effective manager or supervision needs to review goals and objective with each employee clearly during meetings (Campbell, 2010). A performance evaluationperformance evaluationThe constructive process to acknowledge an employee’s performance. is a constructive process to acknowledge an employee’s performance. Goals and objectives are a critical component of effective performance evaluations, so we need to cover the relationship among them briefly in this section. For instance, the example evaluation form needs to have a set of measurable goals and objectives spelled out for each area (Carpenter; Bauer; Erdogan, 1997).
2.5 Methods of Teacher Performance Evaluation
According to Joan (1986), for successful evaluation the most important criteria’s is Validity. Whether a test or procedure measures what it purports to measure. Evidence of validity must be accumulated to supported interfaces made from evaluation results. Wise and other (1984), define to made a successful evaluation methods which used must be reliable, effective and efficient. For reliability, an evaluation must give similar scores or ranking for similar tests regardless who is evaluator or evaluated. Effectiveness implies the evaluation provides result in their useful format. There are many methods can use for this evaluation such as faculty self- evaluation, and classroom evaluation.
2.5.1 Faculty self- evaluation
This method usually supplements more formal evaluation methods and is used with other data to identify weak areas of instruction and classroom management skills. It not suitable for accountability decisions makers but important as a source of information for staff development (Darling-Hammond and others, 1983).
2.5.2 Teacher interview
This one-to-one conference is used to hire new teachers and communicate evaluation results to experienced teachers. An interview disadvantage is the low correlation between highly rated interviews and subsequent evaluations of teacher effectiveness (Darling-Hammond and others, 1983).
2.5.3 Classroom Observation
This is the most popular evaluation method, usually performed annually by school administrators for experienced teachers and more frequently for beginning teachers. Observation reveals information about such things as teacher interaction and rapport with pupils that is unavailable from other sources. Research criticizes the technique, however, as potentially biased, invalid, and unreliable (Darling-Hammond and others, 1983).
2.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Performance Evaluation to Teacher and School
In education, evaluation can play a role in identifying school improvement and teacher development (OECD, 2009) by identifying all strength and weakness making a right decision and helps to improve performance and achieve the policy of school. School education with a view to school improvement may focus on providing useful information for making and monitoring improvements and can support school headmaster and teachers.
The evaluation performance has a strong positive influence on teacher and their work. According to previous teachers report it increase their job satisfaction and it significantly increase their development as a teachers. The more emphasis in teacher performance, the more change in teachers teaching. So, the framework for evaluation of education needs to appear and to be operating effectively. This evaluation also needs to focus on the standard performance for each teacher. The standards evaluation help to increase the development professional teacher and helps them changes to better than before (OECD, 2009). Sometimes, this kinds of evaluation will appears at website and it can helps families specially parents to choice a good school environment for their child (OECD, 2009).
The disadvantage for this system evaluation is not all school has evaluation structure in their school. For any school which doesn’t has this system at schools they do not get any benefit from this system evaluation. A number of countries which have a weak structure and do not get and benefit from school evaluations and teacher feedback were increased. For example, more of teachers work in schools in Austria (35%), Ireland (39%) and Portugal (33%) that had no school evaluation in the previous five years. In addition, on average 13% of teachers did not receive any appraisal or feedback in their school. Large proportions of teachers are missing out on the benefits of appraisal and feedback in Italy (55%), Portugal (26%), and Spain (46%). Most all teacher work at school offer no rewards effective for their and do not dismiss teachers who perform poorly. But in their schools, teachers would not be dismissed because of sustained poor performance (OECD, 2009).
2.7 Previous System Evaluation and Related Works
2.7.1 Evaluation of Performance for Mesa Public School District in Arizona
The governing board of a school district shall establish a system for evaluate each teachers in the school district. The objectives of the teacher performance evaluation are to improve instruction and maintain instructional strengths. The governing board shall involve teachers in the development and periodic evaluation of the teacher performance evaluation system. Each evaluation shall include recommendations as to the areas of improvement in the performance of the teacher. The plan sets forth six primary activities which the teacher evaluation system orientation, the classroom observations, collection of data, the completion of the evaluation summary form, the final evaluation activities, and the inadequate classroom performance process.
Each plan is comprehensive especially in its provisions and meets with requirement. For examples Teacher Evaluation System Orientation, teachers must be oriented to the evaluation instruments and to the specific procedures to be used in their performance evaluation. In particular, they must be made aware of the evaluation components, competencies, and indicators for measuring effective teaching performance. The intent is to make teachers aware of those competencies that are to be assessed and those components of classroom performance and professional conduct that must meet district standards and are viewed as essential to successful teaching.
2.7.2 Teacher Develo0ment and Management System in Uganda
Uganda’s long-term goal is to provide quality basic education for all its children. The President’s revolutionary UPE policy of January 1997 moved the country rapidly towards the goal of achieving education for all and doubled the number of children arriving at primary schools, greatly increasing the access of girls and the poor to education opportunity. Uganda during the 1990s made impressive progress putting in place the policies and structures that could enhance education quality. For the recent evaluation (MOES, 2000) of TDMS notes that teacher education in Uganda today provides both pre-service and in-service training through 539 primary school centers and tutors radiating from 23 Primary Teacher Colleges serving all schools in the country.
The TDMS system and the Coordinating Centre Tutors are playing a key role, in developing education system quality. They provide the essential linkage between national policy intents and implementation within the schools and classrooms through regular monthly visits to schools to work with head teachers and teachers. The fundamental challenge for this evaluation is to re-examine this evidence in the field, with key local and national stakeholders, and to plot a way forward cognizant of the institutional and resource constraints defined by the Education Sector Investment Programme and the Medium Term Budget Framework.
2.7.3 Course Evaluation System for School of Nursing
This system called as CoursEval. CoursEval is a new web based course evaluation system which it implemented at the University California San Francisco (UCSF), School of Nursing. This system allows their student to evaluate course from any computer with access to the Internet using web browsers such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox.
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This system start when student login to CoursEval by go to it URL with your browser. Each student can login this system by using the username and password which provide by CoursEval and sent it to student via email. Then, click to the login button. Student will see the CoursEval “Welcome” page; student put a mouse on survey and chosen available surveys. This page will show all courses that student will evaluate by using this system. Then, click the open survey button to begin course’s evaluation. After finish evaluation, student will return back to survey list page and student need to chosen either to evaluate another course or just logout from this system.
The School of nursing move from paper-pen to web based course evaluation system because several reasons, firstly the former system was very costly both in printing paper and wasting time for distribute, collect and process course evaluations. Second, the paper-based system is inflexible, if any mistaken, change or re-word it required to design new form and it considerations take amount of time, money to planning a new one. But CoursEval system is extremely flexible, all the new format and design can easier applied at here.
The advantage this system is this system provide more secure than paper-based system. All the components of this system are protected by password. Only the system’s administrators can able to see who has completed or not yet completed the course evaluation survey. The disadvantages for this system is the potential that student will not complete the course evaluation at the end of the course. If his happens, faculty will not get feedback to improvement that course.
2.7.4 Ghana Health Services Staff Performance Appraisal
Ghana Health Service (GHS) is responsible to manage all health services and staff within public health institutions. GHS also has a procedure for evaluate their staff performance. This system more focuses on the performance improvement not to promotion. GHS developed for its own performance process which pilot tested in four regions Eastern, Volta, Northern, and Central. Whilst the Civil Service performance system was conducted mainly by site managers and was supposed to be done yearly, the GHS performance appraisal system was designed to be conducted by service delivery or ward managers (immediate supervisors) and to be completed every quarter.
The main purpose of the GHS staff performance appraisal (SPA) system was to streamline the use of the SPA as an effective tool for Human Resources Management at all levels in the Health Sector. Means, it to encourage Health Managers at various levels and locations to use SPA as a tool for assessing output of staff, identify training needs, and introduce efficiency in the use of Human Resources and to link it to Career Progression and Promotions.
2.7.5 CITO System – Monitoring and Evaluation System for Students
CITO is one of the world’s leading testing and assessment companies. This company will measure and monitor human potential since 1968. CITO also provides and evaluates good, fair tests. CITO’s measurement and monitoring method enables the clients to get an objective analysis of knowledge, skills and competences. This enables sound choices in the area of personal and professional development. CITO has been developed in Education, which it evaluate the performance of students in classroom. CITO also helps the student to reach their potential and helps schools to achieve the objective of school. In addition to monitoring and evaluating educational development, the system offers concrete help with the development of teaching plans and remedial teaching strategies. This system is a universal concept, one that can be successfully adapted to be used by all and student in all countries, irrespective of the education system.
Beside the monitoring and evaluation system for primary education, CITO offers a monitoring and evaluation system for students for the first two years of secondary education. The system saves time. It makes use of computer-based tests, the results of which are analyzed and reported by CITO within two weeks. The main purpose for CITO are to help teachers monitor their student’s development and to monitor the quality of the educational process. CITO has developed a unique monitoring and evaluation system for primary pupils. The system enables teachers to monitor their pupils’ development in a number of meaningful ways: in relation to both personal and peer development, at given moments and over time. CITO’s monitoring and evaluation system comprises a total flexible yet systematic, holistic yet customizable and assessment programme for school-aged pupils (preschool through secondary). The system includes a multi-purpose range of assessment tools, flexible registration techniques, variable diagnostic frameworks and customizable reporting formats. Using traditional pen-and-paper or the latest computer-adaptive tests, the system provides deep insight into the following: individual command of core skills; social-emotional development; educational benchmarks (progress relative to peer-group, school and region); and educational achievement over time.
In addition to monitoring and evaluating educational development, the system offers concrete help with the development of teaching plans and remedial teaching strategies. The CITO monitoring and evaluation system is a universal concept, one that can be successfully adapted to be used by all pupils and students in all countries, irrespective of the education system.
2.8 Future Evaluation of Staff Performance
It is important to consider the unique contributions made by each staff to the accomplishment of the school’s mission if a staff assessment and evaluation system is to be effective. The Goals and Roles Evaluation (Stronge, 1995; Stronge & Helm, 1990, 1991, 1992) is one evaluation model that offers a practical, research-based model of teacher evaluation that is rooted on the premise of individual-institutional improvement. The Goals and Roles evaluation model reflects two phases with six distinct steps in the evaluation process:
1 .Development Phase
1. Identify system needs
2. Develop roles and responsibilities for the job
3. Set standards for job performance
2. Implementation Phase
4. Document job performance
5. Evaluate performance
6. Improve/Maintain Professional Service
For the Step 5 is evaluate performance, evaluation is the process of comparing an individual staff’s documented job performance with the previously established roles and responsibilities and acceptable performance standards. The evaluating performance also must include a feedback of an end-of-cycle summative evaluation. By providing feedback, the staff must support in his/her ongoing efforts to fulfill performance expectations and is able to identify areas of performance that need attention while there is still time to improve. Summative evaluation provides an opportunity to determine individual staff merit based on the performance. In an ongoing, systematic evaluation process, identifying system needs and relating those needs to performance ensures that the evaluation is concerned with both the merit (internal value) and worth (external value) of performance (Danielson & McGreal, 2000).
While six distinct steps in the Goals and Roles evaluation model are described, it is important to recognize that the first four steps require intensive attention only during the Development Phase. We need to complete the Development Phase before proceed to the Implementation Phase which most of the energy and effort are invested. This model can help to develop and implement the process of evaluating staff at school and in the future this system will be introduced at each school in this country. Effective staff evaluation is essential for effective schools.
This chapter discussed the background of the evaluation which related with this study and overview of the previous system evaluation of staffs and teachers. Otherwise, it also identified the important of this system to encourage the performance of teachers and self-development and become more accountability and responsibility to their jobs. Based on the related literature review, the system evaluation was increasing and identifying as a one tools to measure the performance of staffs or teachers in school. For the next chapter, we will discuss about the methodology for this study.
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