Socialisation is a complicated, lifelong process responsible for helping to shape an individual’s identity (Germov & Poole, 2007) and the way in which they blend into their society. A person’s beliefs, their thoughts and behaviours are affected by this process, both now and later in their life. By learning the beliefs, attitudes and values of the society into which they were born (Pujari, 2015) every individual ascertains how to feel, to think and to behave in ways that are socially acceptable (Bessant & Watts, 2007). The socialisation process of an individual is affected by their environment; by their natural biology and their culture or the nurturing they receive as they are developing (McCleod, 2007). The process of socialisation begins almost as soon as a baby is born and three factors which greatly influence this process are their family, their school experiences and their gender.
An individual’s family is responsible for their socialisation, however this process has been affected due to the different ways in which a family unit may be formed in today’s society (Germov & Poole, 2007).
- Families are generally responsible for beginning an individual’s socialisation process and these effects are long lasting (Berryman, Power, & Hollitt, 2002). This early socialisation is greatly influenced by nature and nurture factors (McCleod, 2007).
- The key to positive socialisation, according to Parsons (Germov & Poole, 2004), is a supportive, constant family in which women and men have totally separate roles although they complement each other within the family unit.
- The role of women, the changing roles and jobs of family members and single parent families all impact on an individual’s socialisation process (Germov & Poole, 2004).
The school is a major factor in the process if an individual’s socialisation. During their time at school children are taught a curriculum however they are also influenced by their teachers and their peers. Bandurra, a socio-behaviourist theorist (Nolan & Raban, 2015), believes the manner in which teachers demonstrate and model behaviour indicates how they wish the students in their class to behave. A child’s interactions with their peers also influences their behaviour as they learn how to please others, restrict unfavourable behaviour and be socially acceptable (Long-Crowell, 2003 – 2016).
- Impact of school on an individual’s socialisation and the formation of social values, especially conformity (Soldana, 2023).
- The impact of the informal or hidden curriculum (Germov & Poole, 2004) on the socialisation process.
- The influence of an individual’s peer group on their socialisation and the use of multi digital media such as computers and mobile phones (Germov & Poole, 2004).
Gender roles and stereotypes influence a society’s view on the acceptable characteristics and behaviours for males and females. Children learn these roles and stereotypes (Robinson & Diaz, 2006) from an early age as they are influenced by their family, with parents and other family members conveying their own beliefs about how boys and girls should appear and behave (Berryman, Power, & Hollitt, 2002). These differences in acceptable female and male behaviour are influenced by both biology (nature) and a child’s culture (nurture) (McCleod, 2007).
- Definition of gender and the beliefs of a family in reinforcing gender roles and stereotypes.
- How society constructs gender (Robinson & Diaz, 2006) and the nurture influence on the process of socialisation (Germov & Poole, 2004).
- Men and women’s roles and work (Bessant & Watts, 2007) and their impact on an individual’s socialisation.
Socialisation is a complicated, lifelong process responsible for helping to shape an individual’s identity, beliefs and behaviours and how they successfully blend into society. Family, school experiences and gender are three factors which greatly influence this process.
- An individual’s family is responsible for their socialisation however this process is affected by the structure of individual families.
- An individual’s socialisation is influenced by the behaviour of teachers and their interaction with their peers.
- Society’s view on the acceptable characteristics and behaviours for males and females also affects an individual’s socialisation process.
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