History of Ocean Park Hong Kong
Ocean Park was opened on 10 January 1977 by the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Murray MacLehose. It took HK$150 million, which was funded by The Hong Kong Jockey Club and the Hong Kong Government, to be built. Between 1982 and 1984, The Hong Kong Jockey Club gave a further HK$240 million to develop the facilities at Tai Shue Wan and thrill rides at the Summit.
The Hong Kong Jockey Club stopped subsidizing Ocean Park on 1 July 1987 Ocean Park became its own statutory body, with a Government-appointed Board. The Hong Kong Jockey Club established a HK$200 million trust to ensure the Park’s continued development. At present, Ocean Park is managed by the Ocean Park Corporation, a financially-independent, not-for-profit organisation.
Background of Ocean Park Hong Kong
In Hong Kong, there are two theme parks which are most popular and visitors should visit if they come to Hong Kong. They are Ocean Park and Hong Kong Disneyland. In this essay, we will mainly focus on discussing Ocean Park.
Ocean Park Hong Kong , commonly known as Ocean Park, is an animal theme park, situated in Wong Chuk Hang and Nam Long Shan in the Southern District of Hong Kong. It is founded in 1977 by the Governor of Hong Kong Sir Murray MacLehose, Ocean Park has now got about 35 attractions and rides. The park has won several awards, including The World’s Seventh Most Popular Amusement Park and the 33rd Most Visited Tourist Attractions in the World by Forbes. In year 2007/2008, Ocean Park had 5.03 million visitors. It was awarded “the worlds number 15 theme parks”. It has the annual attendance ahead of rival Hong Kong Disneyland’s 4.5 million visitors.
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Covering an area of 870,000 square meters of land, the park is separated by a large mountain into two areas, The Summit (Headland) and The Waterfront (Lowland) respectively. The two areas can be reached by a 1.5km long cable car system, a shuttle bus, or the Ocean Express (train). As the Headland consists of several hills, visitors can also take the world’s second longest outdoor escalator to go from one side of the mountain to the other side..
The theme park now has 19 rides, including two roller coasters. It also consists of 11 animal exhibits, such as a Giant panda habitat, a jelly fish and Chinese sturgeon aquarium, as well as a four-story aquarium showing more than 2,000 fish.
Besides being an amusement park, Ocean Park also operates observatories, well-developed laboratories, an education department and a Whales and Dolphins Fund. Ocean Park Hong Kong was the first institution in the world to have success in artificial insemination of bottlenose dolphins, and developed numerous new breeds of goldfish.
In September 2007, Ocean Park Hong Kong increased its ticket prices by 12% and 14% to take advantage of the Golden Week Holidays. In July 2009, Ocean Park Hong Kong announced that they would increase their ticket prices again by 20% and 25%.
Attractions park of ocean park Hong Kong
- Headlines Rides
- Lowland Gardens
- Whisker’s Harbor
- Tai Shu Wan Entrance
- Theatre Shows
A statement of the problem or critical issues for the study
A statement of the problem or critical issues for the Ocean Park opened over 28 years. Allan Zeman, a person who changed the destiny of Ocean Park, was the Chairman since 2004. Before Allan Zeman joined Ocean Park, the Park was only matched the break-even point of their revenue. It is because the facilities are getting old and no new games built in the Park. The Park only maintains all the common facilities like Cable Car, Ocean Theatre, Pacific Pier, Atoll Reef, Whiskers Theater, etc. All the shows are old and not interesting to old visitors at all.
After Allan Zeman becoming the Chairman of the Ocean Park, he introduced lots of new element to the Park. The most popular is the Sea Jelly Spectacular, Giant Panda Adventure, The HKJC Giant Panda Habitat and Chinese Sturgeon Aquarium. The Government of Mainland China gives the Chinese Sturgeon and pandas to the Ocean Park which shows friendship between China and Hong Kong. It attracts lots of visitors to visit the Park because of the rare species of animals.
Ocean Park target customers have a wider range than the Hong Kong Disneyland. It is because the games are more excited than those in the Hong Kong Disneyland. For example, the Abyss Turbo Drop and Mine Train are too scary if children play. Allan Zeman introduced these games most likely attracting teenagers over 15. On the other hand, families which have elderly and children are also significant in his project. The SkyFair, Giant Panda Adventure, Goldfish Treasures, Emperors of the Sky and lots of shows are provided to the families to visit. Children can learn from the shows and the boards in the aquarium or the show rooms to know more knowledge outside classrooms.
Ocean Park started the Ocean Park Academy Hong Kong for students to learn in nature. Students can feed parrots or dolphins in the lessons. Also, Ocean Park will provide their staff as tour guide to lead students to visit the aquarium and show rooms in order to provide an interesting learning environment to them. They provide at least five courses to difference classes of students from kindergarten to secondary school. Each level gives students different ways to learn the nature, for example, games, bring students to observe the animals, fish, sea lions, seals and pandas, etc and role play and so forth.
Ocean Express commenced in the early 2010. It provides a new way and faster way to travel between the Ocean Park’s Waterfront to the excitement at the Summit. It eases the burden of Cable Car. It can bring 5,000 people per hour in each direction between two main lands in Ocean Park within 3 minutes. It saves the traveling time for visitors and let them have more time to play in the Park. The Ocean Express designed like a submarine and offers a vivid experience that simulates a journey through the ocean’s depths. It carries through the idea of people in the ocean. On the other hand, some elderly or people may afraid of riding cable cars as they have acrophobia. The commencement of Ocean Express is a good choice for them that travel between two main lands in the Park. It targets all ranges of their customers.
Since Allan Zeman joined the Ocean Park, he raised lots of themes to the Park in difference seasons to satisfy kids and big kids’ wants. In summer, Ocean Park set up a temporary water war game site to kids and big kids. Kids can play in a small playground with water and slides. Big kids can bring water guns which provided by the Park to have an exciting water war game in a safe temporary site. It is not only cooling down in the hot summer, but also giving a good place for families and friends to play something that they cannot easily find in Hong Kong. One of the most successful projects brought out by Allan Zeman is Halloween. This event attracts at least 50% more visitors to the Park every year at that period. Most of them are teenagers and big kids. The level of scary in Ocean Park is much higher then the Hong Kong Disneyland and therefore it becomes famous to teenagers and big kids. Lots of foreign visitors come to visit Ocean Park in Halloween as they are attracted by the level of scary and the mood of this funny and horrifying festival. In Christmas, Ocean Park injects another theme which is called “Ocean Park Christmas Sensation”. As Christmas is a romantic festival, Ocean Park provides a romance atmosphere for couples in love. It is totally different from the Hong Kong Disneyland that only providing funds to kids.
In conclusion, Ocean Park takes care of wide range of their customers. No matter students, elderly, families, friends, couples, kids, big kids, etc, they used to provide variety themes to its target customers and make them fresh in every visit.
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Purpose of the study
According to the Tourism Development Bureau, 2009 Visitor Arrivals Summary by Country / Territory of Residence of the show, visitors from Mainland China had 1,848,832, accounting for the total number of visitors in Hong Kong 60.4%, 14.1% increase over 2008, statistics show Chinese mainland tourists are our most important visitors.
In February 2005, the Ocean Park Corporation submitted to the Government a $5.55 billion master plan to redevelop the park into a world-class marine-themed park featuring more than 70 attractions. The redevelopment plan continues to emphasise the importance of community involvement and the park’s role in supporting conservation and educational initiatives in Hong Kong. First to the second phase has been completed, some new rides and attractions have facilities open to the re-development project is expected to be in the final stages of completion in 2014.
Consolidated basis of the above information, the purpose of the investigation is to understand the mainland tourists for the satisfaction of the current park, which re-development projects of the impact on the marine park. Through empirical data, we hope to show whether the re-development project had brought about the expected effectiveness and benefits to make a survey and analysis
Contribution of the study
Our research will focus on mainland visitors entering the park satisfaction, motivation and behavior in the park re-development project between the impact of mainland tourists as the park’s main target, to bring the benefits of the park’s contribution through the studyexpect to learn more about the expectations of mainland tourists to the park, the facilities of the park today, attractions, transport and surrounding infrastructure, based on the above criteria, and wanted to come up with behavioral intention Ocean Park visitors, tourist motivation, satisfaction
Behavioral intention is the consumer’s behavior or actions, including the recommendations of others and revisits.Boulding, Kalr, Staelin, and Zeithaml (1993) as interpreted by the “repurchase intentions”, and “would recommend to others” to measure consumer behavior, intent, intention to act on behalf of tourists
- Consumer product or service behavioral tendencies, the main response to the possibility of a future purchase, whether the possibility of renewal or conversion;
- Customer willingthe establishment of positive word of mouth support tendencies.It can be seen, recreation and tourist industry in customer loyalty should have
- Revisiting the meaning
- Positive appreciation
- Intention to recommend behavior
The intention in this study as a basis to measure three aspects
Human activities, has its inherent psychological reasons, it is Motivation, it is one of the Motivation will inevitably produce a certain kind of behavior.Therefore, the “motivation = behavior” is a psychological causation.Because of the psychological long-term incentives, including the requirements, needs, drives, excitement, attitude, interests, aspirations and so the definition, towards the goal and guidance to the activities of the process,
TO Select Hong Kong as “Ocean Park” personal activities arising from what motives caused. Scope of this study of travel motivations, the Department of the subjects in the “tourist motivation scale”, said the scores on it. That including physical and mental relaxation, leisure, social, self-affirmation, and four levels of learning new knowledge.Subjects, the higher the score, indicating that the strength of its tourism motivation is stronger, lower scores, indicating the strength of tourism motivation is weaker.
The concept of consumer satisfaction theory, consumers will pay to bring it reasonable and practical to obtain satisfied with the kind of feeling.Open before the “expected experience” opened “gain experience”, and in the overall recreation experience visitors as satisfactory.The satisfaction of the Institute for the tourists call it entertainment environment, the properties of each level,
This is the Ocean Park visitors engage in recreation environment, tourism, services, and results of subsequent experience.the satisfaction of tourists, including all the major services, entertainment, environment, landscape experience, ideas exchange, to recreational activities around the six areas. Department of subjects in the “experience satisfaction”, said the scores on it.The higher the score, which indicates that Ocean Park had a higher degree of satisfaction, on the contrary, a lower score is expressed not satisfied with that.
To achieve the purpose, the following objectives are set:
- Personal characteristics of mainland tourists travel Motivation
- Motivation of tourism impact on satisfaction
- To discuss redevelopment plans adopted will revisit the impact
- Satisfaction, the impact on the willingness to revisit
Results of the analysis, review the direction and objectives of the present park effectiveness, to re-formulate the future direction and policies of the park, as the view or policy-making foundation, is an important part of policy formulation.
Scope and limitations of the study
The research will determine the motivation and satisfaction of the guests of the Ocean Park Hong Kong. The implementation of the research will be analyzed and discussed.
In the research, the ranges of study will be divided into three areas:
Areas of study
All the enabled facilities, including the attractions and shows, dining area and shopping stores in the Ocean Park, and the surrounding facilities related to the Ocean Park will be the areas of study. The facilities which are under construction will not be included in this research.
Objects of study
According to the press release announced by Ocean Park on 25 June 2010, the Ocean Park attained 5.1 million of attendance for year 2009/2010. The data indicated that there are more than 53% of guests are tourists from Mainland China, which are the biggest portion of the attendance. Thus, the research will focus on the tourists from Mainland China (both tour group visitors and individual visitors), in family basis and the head of the family, who visit the Ocean Park during the sampling time frame.
Variables of study
This research will focus on analyzing the background characteristics (e.g. ages, occupations, education and place of residence) of the tourists from Mainland China, and their travel motivations, satisfactions and expectations to the Ocean Park.
This research will be limited by a variety of factors as below:
- The redevelopment work of the Ocean Park is still in progress. It will be delivered in phases by 2012. Consequently, the areas of this research will only cover the developed and enabled facilities. The research result will not include all parts in Ocean Park. Furthermore, the level of satisfaction of the visitors will be affected by the redevelopment work.
- For those Mainland tourists who visit the Ocean Park before or after the time frame of this research, will not be considered as the objects of the study. Since the research will only focus on a group of people and there will be time frame for the research, the research result can only reflect the analysis of a portion of the total population.
- The credibility of the collected data depends on the honesty of the respondents which is the situation we cannot control. This will affect the accuracy of the research result.
Methodologies to be used
We will obtain primary data through the process of direct observations, questionnaires and survey/personal interview. At the same time, information will be collected from secondary sources.
We will conduct observations in order to acquire accurate data. The tourists from Mainland China in the Ocean Park will be observed and recorded as much of their behavior as possible. Observation is an easy but a time consuming task. Observational research techniques are required for collecting the data. The observers will be aware of not letting the targeted subjects know they are being observed. The findings are considered high degree of validity because the observer will be able to collect a depth of information about the behavior of the targeted subjects.
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A questionnaire (see Appendix I) is designed for obtaining the survey/personal interview. We intend to use the questionnaire as a tool for collecting data from at least 300 tourists from Mainland China who have visited the Ocean Park. The questionnaire is divided into three parts. Part one is to collect personal information and their motivation for visiting Ocean Park, which helps us to get the different background of the tourists. The other part is to assemble their level of satisfaction to the Ocean Park. The remaining part of the questionnaire is to gather the expectations and opinions on the strengths and limitations of the Ocean Park for further improvement. The questionnaire is designed based on the following questions:
What is the factor attracted you to visit the Ocean Park?
Do you satisfy with the current facilities of Ocean Park?
What do you expect for the future development of Ocean Park?
What do you suggest the Ocean Park for improvement?
Will you visit the Ocean Park again?
The questionnaire will be tested in a pilot study for checking the quality of the questions and estimating the response rate, so as to modify the questionnaire if necessary.
Conduct of Survey/Personal Interview
In the study, we intend to collect the data from three groups of people. The first group of targeted interviewees is the tourists from China who have visited the Ocean Park and within the ages of 18-60; the second group is the representative of the Ocean Park; and the third group is the Hong Kong Receiving Agents for Chinese Tours.
We will use the questionnaire as a tool and conducting the survey with the first group of people. We expect to interview at least 300 people in the first group (tourists from China who have visited the Ocean Park) in order to collect their background, motivations and satisfactions of visiting the Ocean Park. The survey/personal interview will be carried out from 13 November 2010
On the other hand, we will invite the Chairman of the Ocean Park, Dr. Allan Zeman, for an informational interview (see Appendix II). This interview aims to gather his insights of the future development of the Ocean Park and his view on the continuing growth of the guests from Mainland China. Besides, we will search the list of Hong Kong Receiving Agents for Chinese Tours through the website of Travel Industry Council of Hong Kong. We will invite the agents for an interview (see Appendix III), to get the sales information for the Ocean Park tickets and their view on the continuing growth of the tourists from Mainland China.
Not all members of the population will be sampled. Only the guests who are inside or outside the Ocean Park will be sampled randomly. A screening question will be asked to determine whether the respondent is qualified to answer the questionnaire. We target to talk only to the “head of the family” or “head of the group of people”. If the person we would like to interview is unwilling or unable to participate, we will invite the other ‘family members” or “group members” to be interviewed.
There will be a variety of problems occurred while conducting the research:
- Time availability – How long should the survey be taken? Do we have enough time for doing the interviews? Lengthy questionnaire may scare away the interviewees, especially the tourists.
- Geographic restrictions – The targeted interviewees are over too broad a geographic range for us to carry out a personal interview.
- Language issues – The tourists from Mainland China not only speak in Mandarin and Cantonese. Parts of them speak in Chinese dialect.
- Low response rate – Some interviewees are unwilling to be interviewed and surveyed. They will refuse to respond. The low response rates are among the most difficult of problems in the research.
- Incomplete questionnaire – There will be insufficient data for the analysis.
The following strategies will be set for solving the problem:
- The questionnaire should not be too long and too complicated. The content should be easy for understanding.
- We will obtain the interview and survey inside or outside the Ocean Park. It is easier for sampling the targeted interviewees.
- The interviewers should be multilingual and speak Chinese dialect.
- We will not expect all the respondents to cooperate.
Secondary data is important for this study. The research of the secondary data will be attained through the various channels:
The annual report of the Ocean Park will be searched. The report will provide the most accurate information on the guests’ attendance, current situation and future development.
We will conduct the internet search in order to find the relevant articles, background and objectives of the Ocean Park.
We will search the reference books in libraries for collecting the information of Ocean Park or relevant information.
Newspapers will be searched for collecting the relevant articles and news of the Ocean Park.
A variety of data and information will be attained through the observations, survey/personal interview and secondary sources research. The different characteristics of the respondents, e,g, ages, occupations, education and place of residence, the travel motivations, the satisfactions and expectations of the Ocean Park will be the major data collected. The implementation of the research and survey will be analyzed by our team members.
The result of the analysis will show the Mainland tourists’ willingness to revisit the Ocean Park. Also, it will illustrate the direction and objectives of the current effectiveness of the Ocean Park, and suggest the future direction and polices of the park.
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