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European cuisines: UK and Spain

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Education
Wordcount: 5249 words Published: 4th May 2017

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This assignment will focus on the cuisine of Europe and more specifically on the cuisine of Spain and the cuisine of the British Isles

The report will critically evaluate European cuisines using sufficient reliable sources together with evidence in the form of dishes recipes. I have produced in the college kitchen and in different kitchen I worked while on my kitchen industrial training. In addition to these dishes and my practical performance will be assessed and evaluated critically. An appropriate explanation and justification will be applied to each dish to explain to the reader in great deal the reasoning for the use of specific commodities methods and equipments used while preparing and cooking them.

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It can be termed as a specific set of cooking tradition techniques, which are practice often associated with a specific culture. It can be termed after a region or a place where it is practiced over and over again and where its underlining culture is still present. The ingredients that are locally available or a mix of through trade primarily influences a cuisine.

European cuisine

The European cuisine as a whole is a mix of vivid, completed, compelling; challenging gives a lot of space for experimenting and playing with the different ingredients available all over the European continent. It provides a lot of scope of learning about a wide variety of countries, physical geography, religious and cultural practices, locally available ingredients, climate, demographic, political, economic, and geological influences.

Before explaining about the European cuisine we have to know about the Europe and its characteristic’s that are very diverse. Europe on the whole is very much divided on the basis of it’s Diverse physical geography, Climatic changes ,Geology of the continent ,Varied bio- diversity And most important is the mix of it’s Demographic variances, political stability, economic conditions, industrial growth, the cold war era (1945-1990), rise of the E.U. (European union) 1991-07, current economic recession (2008-09). The above stated plays an important role in the common European person’s life. All these are based on the late 18th, 19th, 20th century changes that took place in Europe due to the modern invention, wars, and immigration of people for better life.

Source: (http://europa.eu/abc/european_countries/index_en.htm)

All the above mentioned some where or the other influenced the eating habit of the persons thus improving and spreading and making the food cooking techniques and practices unique and others recognized them as a specific cuisine.


Division is based on the diversity of cuisine

Eastern European cuisine

Scandinavian cuisine

Russian cuisine

German cuisine

Cuisine of British Isles

Iberian cuisine (known as Spanish+ Portuguese cuisine)

Greek cuisine

Italian cuisine

French cuisine


Spain is the third largest nation and occupies most of the Iberian Peninsula at the southwestern edge of the European continent.

The basis of the history of Spanish food is very much influenced by its geographical situation. First of all Spain is located on the Iberian Peninsula and almost entirely surrounded by the waters. Due to its location seafood forms on of the main ingredients of the Spanish gastronomy and categories the country as having a Mediterranean diet.

Apart from covered by the sea the rest of Spain is a diverse terrain made up of mountain ranges, lush pasture, fertile farm grounds and an extensive coastline, which contributes as a main source of providing quite a variety of fresh products.

Regional and cultural division throughout the history of Spanish cuisine.

There is a very interesting history of Spain as various people, including the Phoenician, the Romans and the moors, have invaded Spain over the centuries, Jews later integrated the elements of their own cooking into that of Spain.

As there is a vast and complex ingredient available throughout Spain for cooking and as different methods are used to cook them there is one similarity in all the regional cuisine that is garlic and olive oil.

The culinary regions of Spain

The north of Spain

This region is mainly considered for its specialties of sauces and seafood, such as regions of Galicia and Asturias.

The eastern region

The most famous delicacy known as paella valenciana comes from this region in this region the primary dishes are rice based

The central Spain

This includes the region of Castilla-León. This region is famous for its roast meats and cocidos or stews.

The Pyrenees

This region is home of the chilindrones, sautéed peppers, garlic, tomatoes and onion are the ingredients that accompanies primarily in all the regional dishes

Cataluña region

This regional cuisine reflects a wide characteristic of land and people casserole or cazuelas makes the region famous and last but not the least cooking in the clay pots that gives the dishes a distinctive aroma.


It is the sub region classified, as the staple diet is fish and tapas is the other specialty no bar serve a drink without a tapas to munch on. Andalusia is one of the world’s major producers of olive oil. It has a long coastline full of seafood and a hot Mediterranean weather to compliment.

The climatic and geographical characteristics have given the regional cuisine its primary features, the refreshing gazpachos, the fried fish, and the style of cookery generally easy to prepare and accompanied by richly flavored wines.

Source:(Solomon H. Katz, encyclopedia of food and culture, New York: gale group ltd.)

The Legacy Of The Moors

The Moors were renowned for combining meat and fish with fruit and this practice is still common in parts of Andalusia today. The hot climate of the region is ideal for growing a large variety of fruit and vegetables. Spanish regional foodhas many local variations and Andalusia cuisine has a wide variety ofdishes, which have originated in specific areas. Being the last bastion of the Moors, Andalusia food has a strong Moorish influence, kebabs are very popular and the mixture of meat and fruit.

The Mediterranean coast offers an abundance of seafood and there are lots of seafood restaurants up and down the Costa del Sol. Parillada is a mix of grilled seafood with garlic, parsley and a few wedges of lemon. Fritura is an assortment of small fish, which have been coated in flour and fried in olive oil with garlic and parsley.

Source: (http://www.apartrent.co.uk/REGIONS/ANDALUCIA/food.htm)

Essential ingredients that make Spanish cuisine different from others are olive oil, garlic, fresh tomatoes, and variety of paprika powder as well as saffron. Rest of the ingredients differ from kitchen to kitchen operations and preparation of meats and availability of fish and seafood.

Source:(Pepita, A (2004) Spanish food and cooking)

Baking in salt is a popular method of cooking fish in Andalucia. The fish is encased in a salt mixture, which sets hard during baking. Special saltpans are available for this type of cooking. The salt case is broken away before serving. Far from being salty, the fish becomes moist and tender.

Paella is the national dish and is traditionally eaten on Sunday lunchtime when all the family troop down to their local restaurant and spend most of the afternoon eating and drinking. Paella varies from region to region. Paella originated in Valencia and Valencian paella is still regarded as the authentic version.

An unusual and tasty seafood dish from Andalucia is a combination of clams with white beans or Alubias blancas con almejas.

Andalucian Ham

Dried ham is one of Spain’s most famous specialty foods and can be found on the shelves of most supermarkets. A few areas are noted for the excellence of their hams, especially Extremadura and some of the mountainous regions of northern Spain. Another area producing the most sought after air-cured hams are the villages dotted around the slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

The climate in this area is supposed to be the best for giving the ham unique flavours. The pig’s special diet in the pasture and a unique curing process contribute to the fine flavours of these hams, which are classified as Serrano (plain cured) and bellota (acorn ham).

The ham is dried in specially constructed sheds, which are a common site in the village. The hams are cured for a minimum of twelve months.

Source: (http://www.apartrent.co.uk/REGIONS/ANDALUCIA/food.htm)

Equipments and commodities used in set up of any Spanish kitchen


Spanish cuisine

Vegetables, wild food

Variety of olives, tomatoes, fresh peppers, dried chilies, potato and squashes, beans, aubergine, garlic, wild variety of mushroom, dried beans, lentils, cabbage, turnips, cardoons, capers, dandelion, garbanzo, leafy green spinach, asparagus, honey.

Herbs and flavourings

Saffron, cumin, coriander seeds, black pepper, salt, paprika, bay leaves, fennel, lemon verbena, mint, oregano, parsley, rosemary, thyme, almonds, hazelnuts, pine nuts, sherry vinegar, aniseed


Apricot, dates, plums, dark picot cherries, golden grapes, red fleshed figs, pomegranate, orange, variety of melons, strawberries, passion fruit, banana, pineapple.

Fish, shellfish and Preserved fish

Hake, cod (bacalao), Gallo, sea bass, turbot, monkfish, gilthead bream, swordfish, sea trout, salmon trout, carp, tench.

Scallops, mussels, clams, cockles, prawns, shrimps, lobsters, crabs, squid, cuttlefish, octopus, crayfish.

Preserved fish: blue fin tuna, sardines, anchovies, and variety of fish caviars (black herring roe, grey mullet

Meat, poultry and game

Pork, suckling pig, beef and veal, the fighting bull, lamb, Capons, guinea fowl, goose, duck, turkey, hare, rabbit, venison, quail, pigeon, woodcock, pheasant.

Preserved meat

Sausages(black, red, white), morcillas, chorizo, white botifarras (Blanca’s), embutidos.

Lomo embuchado(cinta), jamon Serrano,cecina.

Dairy products

Milk, butter, Variety of cheese about 200.

Cabrales, menorcan mahon, san milon, idiazabal, manchega.

Bread and cakes

Traditional breads-hogaza,pan de cebada.

Cocas- hot from bread oven like pizza.

Variety of cakes and buns- magdalenas(butter cakes), sobos pasiegas.

Being so diverse with a wide range of ingredients available to prepare and cook a Spanish cooking does not need anything special, it requires a basic, well-equipped kitchen.

Bottle opener- for wines and bottled vinegars


Tough bottle openers are used in the entire kitchen all over the world but it is necessity to have one because it comes very handy when using bottles of wine, vinegars and oil in Spanish cooking as it is needed so often.

Ceramic or clay pot –

Widely used for oven baked casserole dishes and for cocidos.

It is used in different regions of Spain as they cook casserole dishes every single day. Ceramic or clay pots take time to cook the food as well as maintain its nutritional value and gives a distinctive flavours to the food.

Espresso pot- for coffee

After every meal Spanish people prefer to have a cup of coffee as it is widely used in every household as well as in any Spanish restaurant.


Garlic press- one designed to press cloves without having to peel them. Garlic is the main ingredient in the Spanish cuisine and cleaning a garlic pod is very tiring job when it has to be done in bulk. It is always good to have a garlic press in the kitchen.


Mortar and pestle-it is commonly used to grind herbs and spices and making fresh dipping for the various tapas dishes.It is also used to grind saffron and salt together to get a distinctive flavour in paella dishes.


Heavy Mason jar-

It is used for storing leftover oil. Spanish cooking use the frying method either for fish or making garlic prawns. After preparation of every meal there is a leftover of oil that is always stored in the Heavy Mason jar for its reuse


Paella pan- for cooking paella

Paella is best prepared over an open fire,gas operated or charcoal BBQ. Use a round kettle-style BBQ the reason for this is so that the heat is evenly distributed and because the heat should gradually decrease as you are cooking it. First, the fire must be very hot to brown the meat, and then it should be lower to simmer the rice

Source: (http://spanishfood.about.com/od/maincourses/a/paella.htm)


Pressure cooker-

It is interesting as now days to speed up cooking example- stews a lot of Spanish restaurants are using pressure cookers.


Roasting trays- for oven roasting

Commonly used for cooking large joint of meats or simple fish and poultry.

Ramekins-a large number of small baking equipments are used in order to make desserts ramekins are specially used in preparing flans.


Salt-pans – for cooking fish

The fish is encased in a salt mixture, which sets hard during baking. Special saltpans are available for this type of cooking. The salt case is broken away before serving. Far from being salty, the fish becomes moist and tender.

Source: (http://www.apartrent.co.uk/REGIONS/ANDALUCIA/food.htm)


British cuisine

The cuisine of Britain, Ireland, Scotland and Wales combined together provide the basis for a cooing style that is known as British cuisine although this cuisine is widely influenced and diversified by the history of its colonization.

Significant sub regions:





Britain on a whole is blessed with a distinctive temperature, climatic conditions, fertile land a range of geographical diversity and a long coastline. Many streams of fresh water and river provide a variety of fresh ingredients to consume. British Cuisine is précised tradition of food followed from their ages and which are ultimately associated with the United Kingdom. British cuisine consists of dishes made from the ingredients and food products locally produced.

British food is widely influenced by the people settled in Britain. As now Britain calls out “Chicken Tikka Masala” as their national dish.

Source:(http://news.bbc.co.uk, http://www.channel4.com/food/on-tv/river-cottage/)

Scottish cuisine:

It has its own characteristic hat makes it different from rest of the cuisine and is immensely appreciated by people all over the world. A traditional Scottish cuisine features of an extensive use of freshly grown or produced ingredients in other terms locally available or local produce. The local produce includes oats, salted meats; oatcakes smoked fish are the standard items that are used in Scottish style of cooking. Someone talks about Scottish cuisine one should remember that on any good or bad occasion one cannot forget about the whisky as the Scottish whisky is worlds famous and they are the largest producers of finest spirits Haggis is considered to be the delicacy of the Scott Sheep offal’s is the chief ingredient in the preparation of Haggis. The Scottish nation food product is haggis was originated by carrying the low quality meat in pigs or sheep’s stomach. The Norse invaders who would preserve their food during for the long journey from Scandinavian introduced this.

Source: (Lawrence, S.(2002) Sue Lawrence’s SCOTTISH KITCHEN, London: headline.)

Influence on Scotland:

There was French influence over the Scottish cuisine in late middle ages and early modern era this was because of the cultural exchange brought Mary, Queen of Scots when she returned to Scotland brought in back French chefs who brought in change in the Scottish unique food and also resulted for the change in terminology.

Scottish traditional delicacies are Scotch broth, Colcannon, Scotch Pie, and Porridge. Apart from these dishes Kale, cabbage and many more root vegetables are widely used; Shellfish is very popular, Scottish salmon and world famous Scottish Angus beef.

Special food for special occasion in Scotland

Traditionally there are special food that are prepared and served in Scotland during the festivals they were specially prepared; they often had ingredients with a certain significance (such as flour from the last sheaf) or were made with certain ingredients that were expensive, difficult to obtain round the year, or not eaten at other times of the year.

Source:(Solomon H. Katz, encyclopedia of food and culture, New York: gale group ltd.)

Scottish area and their specialty of food and dishes.

Area of Scotland

Food and dishes

Edinburgh and the Lothian’s

Midlothian oatcakes

Edinburgh rock (sugary confection)

Angus and fife, Forfar

Bridies (pastry filled with steak),Dundee marmalade, Dundee cake, arbroath smokies, pitcaithly bannock

Glasgow, Clydeside.



Glasgow broth

Cheese and ayrshire shortbread

Selkirk bannock, Eye mouth fish pie

Dumfries and Galloway


Galloway beef

Butteries, finnan haddock, Aberdeen angus steak, skirlie

Highlands and inner Hebrides

Fried herring, game soup, tatties and crowdie (potatoes and soft cheese), highland oatcakes, atholl brose (whisky mixed with oatmeal).

The outer Hebrides

Whelk soup, barley bannocks, kale soup

Orkney and sheftland

Oatmeal soup, fried herring and onions, potatoes with milk, beremeal bannocks

Method of cooking-

Smoking: For fishes like Salmon, Haddock, Trout

Boiling: vegetables

Baking: Pies

The specialty about the cuisine is that it consists of a full breakfast includes of eggs. Bacon, black pudding, porridge, fat sausage, Ayrshire bacon

Lunch and evening meal consists of soup. Meat and at least to vegetables followed by a dessert.


English cuisine as a hole has a wider influence as their history goes. Their cuisine is influenced by the ever-changing settlements from different regions of Europe to this place. The so-called Celts, Romans, Danish and Norwegian Vikings, The arrival of Norman that provides French influence in the cuisine.

By the late 16th Century till 18th century England explore and invade colonies that widely developed this cuisine as a whole. All together this factor primarily bought further new dimensions to the cuisine and has become an intrusive part of English cuisine.

The English eating habit mainly includes breakfast, fried bacon, eggs, black pudding, sausages, baked beans, grilled kidney, kedgeree; bread followed by lunch and afternoon tea or so called high tea. Consists of cakes, savory, biscuits, scones, variety of sandwiches and tea follow by the main meal in the evening.

The interesting thing about the British cuisine as a hole is that it has a large scope of experimentation as people here are very much keen to experiment on trying different food and adopt different food styles which includes Asian, Italian and they can be converted to the British palate. Thus there is no hard and fast rule whatsoever.

Currently Britain is giving more importance towards the production of organic foods as people have become health conscious and have restricted their diet. The organic food are therefore easily made available in shopping malls, food courts, some restaurants are serving only organic food products. Also United Kingdom is been recorded for most advance ways of animal farming and welfare.


The British cuisine traditionally in the modern era consists of the traditional Sunday roast that consists of meat; choice of fish or pork, chicken served with gravy Yorkshire pudding, potato mash or roast potato and minimum of to vegetables.

The chips shop or the take always are also very popular making fish and chips their renowned specialty. The other important thing, which can’t be missed in British cuisine, is the Anglo- Indian version of the Indian dishes.

The Famous Food Culture of Britain:

Traditional English breakfast

Traditional Lunches

English Traditional Favourite for Super or High Tea

Traditional Fish and Chips: and Snacks

Traditional Afternoon Tea

Traditional Sunday Roast


Irish cuisine

Geographically Ireland has very diverse climatic conditions in the Europe and thus shows the impact on its cuisine significantly. The Irish cuisine is very well known for its good wholesome food made up from locally grown/reared produce.

Potato feature prominently in today’s diet and old time delicacies like Irish stews and Dublin caddle.

Northern Ireland is also renowned for apples. There are common crops grown all over Ireland, as the climate conditions are same all over Ireland. Irish is also famous for cheese farming as they have one secret ingredient for the exceptional quality of the milk.

Traditional Irish cooking the most commonly used equipment was three legged iron pot, Griddle for cooking oat cakes, Iron pan for frying of pan cakes and bacon rashes also eggs and fish. They also made use of potherbs for boiling potatoes, meats and fish.

Source: (Lennon, W.B (ETA), (2004) The Irish heritage cookbook, London)

Irish people eat meat as well as they are fish and shellfish lovers. Fishes like Atlantic salmon, sea trout, mackerel, haddock, sea bass, monk fish, Dublin bay prawns, scampi, scallops and mussels, Irish Galway of oysters. Also were smoked and cured foods like smoked mackerel, salmon, eel and kippers.

A full Irish breakfast consists of eggs, sausages, white pudding, black pudding, fresh fruits, toast and scones with butter or preserves. Lunch and evening meals consists of meat, vegetables and potato.

The Irish are famous for their soda bread and Irish spirit and Guinness. Irish use spirits as well in their cuisine in order to produce good flavor and distinctive taste and aroma. Irish food is a complex as the many cultural, political and economic forces that have shaped Ireland’s existence

Welsh cuisine

Geographically welsh has a diverse terrain together with rivers and coastline abundance of seafood, welsh people always yield a bountiful of fresh foods in particular the wild animals and the variety of seafood. The cooking methods use in this cuisine is very interesting as these were used back in history.

The tradition of the Wales was to survive into the 20thcentury in the rural parts. The- welsh cuisine traditionally was to satisfy the appetite of the hard working farmers, coal miners, quarry workers and fishermen. In 21st century Wales later gained international recognition for its fresh beef, lamb, fish and seafood.

Cooking on the open hearth: this is carried from prehistoric times where the food is cooked on open fire in iron pots. Then there were griddles and bake stone introduced in 18th and 19th century and later came in the Dutch ovens. Wales is known for its extensive use of baked stones and griddles

Wales has also ample amount of shellfish supply cockles, crabs, limpets, lobster, mussels, prawns, razor fish, scallops and winkles. Oysters were found first in plenty on the Grower Peninsular but now the supplies are spare and they have become expensive too. The seaweed-dried laver is used up to make the Welsh delicacy laver bread. Also known as ‘Welshman’s Caviar’ this is seaweed boiled to make soft dark green mass seaweed is used in breakfast with oatmeal, and cooked in fat as little cakes.

Source: (Yates, A(2007). England’s heritage food and cooking, London: anness publishing ltd.)

Bake stone: it got its name as a stone was suppressed with metal and iron bake stone are still in use in many welsh kitchens.

Stewing and boiling: A lot of welsh dishes are made up of stews meat, this cooking style gives rise to the recipe “cawl” it is also considered as welsh national dish. The cuisine of Wales always reflects the need of the substantial and filling food.

Eating habit here is commonly three meals a day are traditional breakfast consist of bacon, pork sausage, eggs, fried laver bread or oats. Lunch and evening meals traditionally consist of meat or fish with the side vegetable followed by desserts.

The British kitchen

There is a range of ingredients produced in Britain is varied- from it’s lush green fields, orchards and hedgerows to its hillsides and lowland pastures; the seasonal and regional qualities of these ingredients to boost British growing economy and reputation for good food, and their diversity and it encourages the chef’s to prepare delicious dishes, both traditional and modern.

Equipments and commodities used in set up of any British kitchen



Vegetables, herbs, wild food

Carrots, parsnip, turnips, potato, swede, onions, leeks horseradish, Jerusalem artichoke, beetroot, celery, cauliflower, Brussels sprout, spinach, peas and beans, chard, watercress, tomato, lavender, chives, mint, parsley, elderflower, dill, sage, tarragon, chamomile, nettles, wild garlic, dandelions, wild fungi, chestnuts, honey, elderberries, kale, rose hips, hazelnuts.


Apples, variety of berries, rhubarb, quince, meddler, variety of plums, pears

Meat, poultry and game

Variety of sausages,( Cumberland, black pudding, haggis).

Pork, bacon, ham. Mutton, lamb, Beef.

Goose, duck, turkey, pheasant, venison, pigeons, partridge, rabbit, hare.

Fish, sea food and smoked fish

Mackerel, herring, cod, haddock, salmon, white bait, turbot, hake, Pollack, pilchard.

English mussels, oysters, crayfish, and brown shrimps.

Smoked haddock, smoked salmon, smoked herrings. Smoked kippers.

Milk is plentiful in all the regions, a variety of cheese (Cheshire, Lancashire, cheddar, double Gloucester, derby, Windsor red, Cornish- yarg, sage derby, stilton, dove dale, oxford blue)

Methods of Cooking in Great Britain:


Poaching of salmon is the traditional dish. This method uses water; milk, stock or wine is the cooking medium the food product is gently simmered in the liquid. This method of cooking dose not includes any fat.


Traditional Sunday roast. Cooking pork belly, leg of lamb, black pudding stuffed turkey.


Mostly in Great Britain fish and chips are coked using this method this method also give a crispy and crunch crust to the product.


The use of Lancashire hot pot is all over Great Britain. This pot consists of lamb or mutton, onions and potatoes it dose not matters if the trimmings are used of the above food products this all is left to bake in the oven in the heavy pot at a very low heat. This was originated in Lancashire in the north west of England.

Grilling, Char Grilling, Barbeque/Grill Roasting, Grill Braising, Pan Grilling and Salamander Grill

Very commonly used in all the modern as well as traditional rest. all over Britain for cooking different cuts of meats and vegetables.


This method is also referred as pot-roasting. Some of the food products cooked in this style are Braised ox cheek, braised pork spare ribs with preserved mustard greens and braised baby artichokes


Preparation of breads, cakes, pastries and pies, tarts, quiches and cookies. These all products are classified into bakery products. This cooking method is also used for baking potatoes, baked apples, baked beans

Methods of Preservation prevail and practiced commonly in British Isles. Food while in seasons and stocking them for further use.


The food may be sun dried or air dried smoking or wind drying. Mainly fishes like cod, kipplers are sundried

Salting of foods

Dry method of food preservation by addition of dry salt. . Examples are dried and salted cod salt cured meat.


Food is cooked, flavored and preserved by smoking the food by burning some plants and woods. Smoking is done for many food products cheese, fish, meats and vegetables. The food is smoked in smoke room’s keepers, salmon and many other fishes are smoked


Using preservative agent in this can be salt-water vinegar.

Pickeled beetroot, salsify, fennel, preserved lemon are very common to the British cuisine


Making jams and marmalade, gooseberry, elderflower, apple, plums etc are preserved and used throughout the year

Vacuum Packing

This is very popular method, which is practiced in modern British pubs, and restaurants. Practicing methods of sous-vide

For better quality of food, texture, taste.

Source:(http://news.bbc.co.uk, http://www.channel4.com/food/on-tv/river-cottage/)

Cuisine of British isles not only used the known methods of cooking that is baking, poaching, roasting or grilling they preserve a lot of food that is available in a specific season by using a various methods of preservation so that they can enjoy them later when it is not in season.

Traditional Equipments used in British cuisine are:

Traditional Ceramic; stoneware


A traditional kiln for Smoked fish


Casserole Pans

A “casserole dish” usually a deep, round, container with handles and a tight-fitting lid can be glass, metal, ceramic or any other heatproof material. Use in making stews casserole’s ingredients can include meat, vegetables, beans, rice and anything else the cook desires. Often a topping such as cheese or breadcrumbs is added for texture and flavor.


Moulds for baking pies and tart

This is and traditional utensils used for making beef pies this dish may be oval or


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