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Elements Of National Philosophy Of Education

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Education
Wordcount: 5428 words Published: 3rd May 2017

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Education in Malaysia is a continuing process towards further effort in developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner; so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards, and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well being as well as being able to contribute to the betterment of the society and the nation at large.

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To achieve the standard of ‘First Class Modal Insan’, National Philosophy of Education has been implemented to perform high credibility in students in schools in Malaysia. The National Curriculum of the school reflects the objectives of National Philosophy of Education (NPE). By implementing the curriculum effectively in schools, it can develop the students cognitive, affective and psychomotor (physical) with other potentials (JERIS) in students.

2.0 National Philosophy of Education (NPE)

National Philosophy of Education which in Malay called Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan (FPK) combines the goals, policies and educational practices to form a consistent, clear and logical entity. The National Philosophy of Education (NPE) acts as a guide for all educational activities in Malaysia. It sets the values and principles of the Malaysian education system from the primary to the tertiary level.

The NPE explains the aims and objectives of the national education for the individual and the nation. Its aims and objectives are in tandem, namely, to produce individuals who are knowledgeable and full of integrity who will contribute as responsible citizens. NPE also aims to rationally clarify the current educational practices as well as facilitate the actions and trends of education in the future. Education is considered to be a basic and major process in developing individuals to be the key players in achieving the country’s aims and aspirations.

With the NPE, the national education system has propelled to the forefront of education in the region. NPE consists of several elements to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally, and physically balanced and harmonic.

2.1 Elements of National Philosophy of Education (NPE)

“Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, in order to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically, balanced and harmoniously, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well being to contribute to the betterment of the nation, family and society”.

The first element of National Philosophy of Education (FPK) is education as an on-going effort. Education is a process of acquiring and transferring of knowledge, skills and noble values. The acquisition and transfer processes are on-going starting from an early age till the end of one’s life. Early education is important to shape the personality of young children from the age of 1 to 6 years. The personality thus formed will go on developing throughout the schooling years. Upon completion of schooling, the individual continues to enhance his knowledge, skills and character. For instance, after SPM examination, while waiting for the result, the candidates can seek knowledge by attend photography classes or computer classes based on their interests. Continuous education will assist the individual to adapt to various types of changes.

The second element of NPE is development of individual potentials. Every individual has been blessed by God with hidden talents, potentials and abilities. Therefore, talents, potentials and abilities should be tapped, nurtured, developed and enhanced through social interaction with others and the environment. For example, a

student who does not like to study sat for an exam. The result went out and to her surprise, she is among the highest. She did not realize her intelligence before thus, education offers her opportunities to develop her talents, potential and abilities.

The third element of NPE is belief in and obedience to God. One must admit the existence of God and accept Him as the Creator of mankind and the universe. We must be aware that God determines nature’s laws and phenomena. We should also be aware that every individual is fully responsible for his deeds and actions. For instance, Muslims people believe the existence of ‘syurga’ and ‘neraka’. In order to get good reward in life hereafter, one must practice all the teachings of the faith professed.

The fourth element of NPE is knowledgeable Malaysian citizens. It means that all Malaysian citizens must have love for knowledge. In order to achieve it, they must strive to foster knowledge and reading culture. For example, they can go to any bookstores such as Borders, MPH or POPULAR to read any reading materials regardless of its contents as long as they are reading. Ultimately, they will become a broad and open-minded person. All in all, it is crystal clear that if each and everyone in the education fraternity uphold the NPE in carrying out their tasks and responsibilities, inevitably, our educational goal will become reality and not only just a dream.

Other important aspect is to foster the capability of Malaysian in contribution to the nation. Through proper education and training, people can use their productivity and innovation skill to upgrade their productivities to bring a higher level of economic development. Here it does not limited to industrial sector but other as well such as service sector that involves professionals such as doctors, lawyers and so on.

Lastly the important aspects are harmony and the prosperity of society and nation. Racial harmony can be achieve through the practice of proper attitude such as tolerance, cooperation, mutual respect and foster unity among various races in Malaysia to promote the harmonious and peaceful of the nation. The harmonious environments will help in the development of the economy and advancement of all fields. Harmonious environment encourage investor to invest in our country and also the blooming of our tourism industry.

3.0 National Curriculum


The National Curriculum also has been developed from KLSR (Old Curriculum) to KBSR (New Curriculum) then to KBSR (Integrated Curriculum) and the latest KSSR (Standard Curriculum) for primary schools.

Old Curriculum for Primary Schools (KLSR) implemented since the country gained independence. In 1960, a Subjects Review Committee has been established to be known as the Rahman Talib Report as the Minister of Education at that time was Abdul Rahman Talib. This Committee was established to review the national education policy as proposed in the Razak Report made ​​on tahun1956 and early education policy before that the Education Ordinance 1957. Rahman Talib reports have suggested some aspects of education. One of them was Malay as the main

medium of instruction in all schools, including national-type Chinese and Tamil. KLSR has emphasized the concept of overall teaching whereby students just ‘learn and accept’ what they have been taught and there was also no group activity held which made students became passive in class.

A study was done by the Cabinet Committee on Old Curriculum for Primary Schools (KLSR) which has been implemented since independence; found that there are some weaknesses that must be overcome. Until one stage, the Report of the Cabinet Committee has decided to implement KBSR (New Curriculum) as the change to the improvements from KLSR on Implementation of Education Policy issued in 1979.

Some of the objectives of KBSR are students have to master and appreciate the Malay language as the national language and as a tool for solidarity; emphasizes the mastery of basic skills 3M of reading, writing and arithmetic; students should be able to write essays and letters; also focuses on the development of the individual as a whole which includes the physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual and social (JERIS).

Based on the stated matters, it was clear that the goal of education in primary schools KBSR is to ensure overall development of students in terms of intellectual, spiritual, physical, emotional, talent, character, values ​​and social aesthetics. Through co-curricular activities such as clubs, games and uniformed units, students are able to interact with different people, to understand the culture of other races, self-discipline, and can practice tolerance and cooperation with colleagues who have

different religions and cultures. However, in KBSR, the syllabus content of subjects is repeated over and over and also was not related to each other. In terms of too many lessons to be completed, students finally became dull and not interested in learning.

Then, KBSR was implemented. This KBSR was quite different than before because it stands for Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah (Integrated Curriculum). The aims of KBSR are to raise the literacy level of students, to develop their cognitive and thinking skills and to provide them with an all-rounded individual development which will help them operate efficiently within the social structure of this country. The principles of KBSR are more towards integrated approach, equal education for all students, long-life learning, conducive learning surroundings, organizational activities and classroom management must be flexible, emphasize and master on 3M (reading, writing, arithmetic) and integrated assessment of all learning activities in the classroom.

While the methodology used in KBSR are; the spiral approach, learning through doing variety of activities, a child-centered, learner-emancipated learning system, the role of the teacher as a guide, and facilitator of learning. However, through this integrated curriculum, some students are ended by being passive, not active in group activities, unable to polish their skills and abilities as they are hidden by the active and dominant students.

On the year 2011, Standard Curriculum for Primary Schools (KSSR) is introduced as an effort to reorganize and improve the existing curriculum to ensure that students are provided with the knowledge, skills and values ​​relevant to the

current needs and challenges of the 21st century. Implementation of KSSR aims to increase student interest in the subject of English. KSSR enacted in standard statement consists of standards content and student learning to be achieved in a school level.

KSSR are based on curriculum design of 6 cords which are communications, spirituality, attitudes and values, humanities, physical development and aesthetic, Science and Technology and personal skills. KSSR use the elements of creativity and innovation, entrepreneurship and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) explicitly focusing on 4M (reading, writing, counting and reasoning). For now, students in Standards 1 to 3 are using this curriculum while Standards 4 to 6 are still using KBSR.

The objectives of KSSR are to create well rounded and innovative individuals; provide a holistic platform for learning, and to reduce over emphasize on academics. Besides, the strengths of KSSR are more towards practical, less stressful for teachers and students, better interaction between students and teachers, students can focus more on major subjects; Mathematics and Science and also students can spend more time on co-curricular activities. Through KSSR, students can be more independent, able to recognize and polish their skills and abilities, optimistic and knowledgeable.

4.0 Strategies for the Realization of NPE

There are strategies for the realization of NPE. These strategies are to foster a culture of co-curricular activities among the students, provide chances and opportunities to the students to get involved actively in the curriculum activity through a diversity of extra-curricular activities, involve students in co-curricular activities of various races, promote a sense of religiosity and values in the extra-curricular activities, enhancing collaboration and partnerships with community and external agencies, extending and expanding the participation of students of activities curriculum at all levels, provide appreciation and recognition to students, teachers and coaches from time to time, improving efficiency in school curriculum management system, increase the proficiency of 3M , reasoning, social skills and basic computer skills, improving the management team of instructional leadership capacity school, provide assistance to the school and ongoing monitoring to ensure that no student dropouts from compulsory education from the low level. The purpose of the education policy in this country is to unite the children of all nations in the state in the national language as the medium of instruction, although this nothing can be implemented immediately unless should be made gradually.

4.1 Role of School

School plays the important role in preparing, maintaining and managing the infrastructure so that students can obtain a smooth teaching and learning, optimal and secure. Preparation of blackboard, chalk and blackboard eraser is an example of the infrastructure provided by the school. In addition the school also needs to maintain facilities provided such as library and media room that is always in good condition. Perfect administrative control of the school environment also needs to be controlled and disciplined.

Culture ​​should be incorporated in school through formal and informal curriculum. Quran Reading Culture is achieved through the implementation of the activities which are consistent. For example, Quran Reading Culture can be activated through activities such as Quran Tadarus Council.

The color of school climate is very significant in the development of an individual. The influence of the family in the formation of the school besides the student personality is relevant to students’ academic success. Through an orderly school climate, controlled, calm and order that allows conducive environment to the effective teaching and learning process. Good social relationships between teachers, students, school staff and local community people will form a manifestation to NPE policy.

4.2 Role of Teachers

FPN will not be executed if there is no party that wants to play their respective roles. Educators should also strive to make the intention contained in the Wawasan 2020 as a reality. Implementation of the curriculum & co-curriculum can develop potential of students in terms of intellectual, physical and emotional. Teachers as educators should be more committed to achieve aspirations which contained in NPE. The related parties are;

4.2.1 Headmaster

Edmond (1977), Sweeney (1982), Hussein Mahmood (1993) and Leithwood and Jantzi (1997) stresses that the headmaster should have sensitivity of talents and skills of teachers, share goals and make decisions, provide professional development training and high interaction to teachers. Headmaster important role is in enhancing the professionalism of the teacher to achieve school objectives more effectively and systematically.

Headmaster of the school will always provide support and encouragement to teachers to create a better learning environment and attract students to learn. He must not only good at giving directions, but must also be well involved with and implementation of programs conducted in schools. Headmaster direct involvement with the school organization is very important in creating a school climate that is harmonious and peaceful and in line with the Philosophy of Education.

In addition, the Headmaster also is a reference point of school organization. If there are school staffs who have a problem, he need to be aware of and concerned

about them. A good leader will be able to understand the difficulties faced by employees. He needs to lighten hand and ready to help the staff who have the problem. High trait empathy should have in themselves as a leader to always be respected and liked by the school’s community. Therefore, a good headmaster and respected by all members of the school, including the students should have good skills in performing their duties and responsibilities in managing the school administration.

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4.2.2 Senior Assistant

Senior Assistant (GPK) also plays an important role in the school. There are three types of teachers in each school senior assistant of GPK 1, co-curricular and HEM (Hal Ehwal Murid). GPK tasks are to facilitate the management and administration at the school. They are responsible to the Headmaster in administration, curriculum, management, teachers and non-teachers. Senior Assistant 1 plays an important role in helping teachers to implement the Philosophy of Education successfully. Senior Assistant of Co-curricular is responsible for implementing these philosophy intentions. Senior Assistant of Student Affairs is responsible for the eradication of discipline problems in school and takes care of the welfare of students.

4.2.3 Head of Department

Teachers who appointed to be the chief committee usually are chosen based on their excellence in a particular subject. Each subject has a head of each committee. For example English committee will be headed by a chief leader of the

English language committee. Chief committee is responsible for ensuring the excellence committee which headed by him. He will also need to prepare lesson plans for the committee and each teacher will refer to the lesson plans. The lesson plans shall be consistent in all schools in order to achieve the goals of the National Education Philosophy. Chief committee plans to improve student excellence in the field of management. The head of this committee plays a big role to advance the school subjects in order to achieve the National Education Philosophy.

4.2.4 Classroom Teacher

Classroom teachers play a very important role in developing the pupils in school. Classroom teachers act as father or mother when the students in the school. Teacher must know the problem of each student so that they will not be disturbed with the learning session.

Classroom teacher must guide their pupils in a good way of learning. For example, teachers need to provide support and encouragement to students in their class, to study hard in order to get good results. In conclusion, the classroom teacher is the people who students are depending on. This is because; the classroom teacher is close to the students.

5.0 Activity in School

I have given a task to interview and deduct the idealistic of a headmaster’s and a senior assistant’s routine regarding 5 activities carried out in their school to visualize or insist the objective of NPE. To accomplish my task, I have made a survey at some schools in Alor Star, Kedah to review activities that they have held in their schools. I finally decided to choose Sekolah Rendah Convent, which is one of the best schools in Kedah. My presence there was very welcomed by teachers and students. The school community comprise of the school head, senior assistants, panel heads, class teacher and the students. Each of this position especially plays a very important role as a part of FPK. It is through the correct management of the various positions in the school only then the intellectual, physical, emotional, spiritual and social (JERIS) aspects of students can be fully developed. After interviewing the headmaster and senior assistant of the school, I managed to get some information to complete my task.

School is the main stage in realization of NPE. The school plays an important role in providing the correct environment, holding different programs and activities and lastly the cooperation of the school community in managing their role in realizing the NPE. To accomplish the standard of National Philosophy of Education (NPE), schools have to prepare activities that occur in parallel with the curriculum used

5.1 Hari Keusahawanan/Hari Kantin

First activity which had been held in the school is ‘Hari Keusahawanan/ Hari Kantin’. Canteen Day/Young Entrepreneur Day is a program that can enhance the cooperation between peers and students with hands on experience of the disciples on the business environment. The objectives of holding this Canteen Day is to give exposure to the students about learning and applying business methods they have learned in the classroom besides to raise funds from the sale for the school used such as to purchase textbooks and the balanced will be donated to the school library. Through these efforts the students can plan how to run a business and make a profit and loss calculation

This activity usually held on the early month of March and is leaded by the Senior Assistant of Co-curriculum Affairs and is launched by the Headmaster of the school. This event usually took place at the open hall or at canteen itself. The reason why this event is held early in the year because it will not affect on students’ studies and there is also no current examinations held on that time.

The structure of this event is a total of 30 stalls will be in operation on the day. Various stalls such as Burger Stall, Fried Chicken Stall, Miscellaneous Soup Stall, Nasi Lemak Stall, Fruit Stall, Various Drinks Stall, Stationery Stall, Students Accessories Stall and Packaged Foods Stall. The prices also are reasonable and affordable for the school community. There are also exciting games held on that day such as Ghost House, Indoor Games, and Karaoke. The response from the community has been encouraging. Parents are also participating on giving help to

provide goods sold to students. Indeed, with the implementation of these activities has indirectly strengthened the relationship between parents, children, and teachers. The event usually started at 8.30 am and ended at 12.00 pm. Then, teachers and students will clean the stalls together.

5.2 Gotong-Royong Day

Next activity is Gotong-royong Day. Usually this activity will be held early in the year like in January or February. It is headed by the selected teachers. This activity is actually to keep the school compound clean, beautiful and cheerful besides forming a new learning environment in the classroom, instill the moral values such as to love the environment, love the school, being helpful to each other, and also to keep awareness in students. Not only that, this activity also can make students to practice hygiene as habits, cultivate a caring attitude and commitment among the school about cleanliness and also to prevent from mosquito breeding. As results, the school environment will be clean, conducive, and free from mosquito breeding.

This ‘gotong-royong’ event had included along the cleaning area around the school, painting classrooms and planting trees. According to the view of the headmaster, this event could encourage students to clean and beautify their classrooms. The most beautiful class will be awarded. For painting sessions, the students were provided with a variety of paint and are divided according to their classes to do some mural paint.

For planting, students can bring home flowers to be planted in the school. School landscape would be very fascinating if it be fitted with a fish pond, garden or other interesting decorations. Through this, students would have more interests to acquire knowledge and also on the environment itself.

In addition, schools also need to run the 3K program. The 3K program means prioritizing cleanliness, beauty and safety. In this program, the school must ensure that it’s in a clean, beautiful and safe surrounding. This is because the school will always been checked and be supervised from time to time. Moreover, the Ministry of Education will make the monitoring at the school. This will catalyze the spirit of the school to ensure that the program successfully held. In conclusion, 3K program is very good to be practice at the school. This whole program runs successfully when the school communities work together for mutual assistance to each other.

5.3 Hari Anugerah Cemerlang

Next activity is ‘Hari Anugerah Cemerlang’. This event is usually held on the month of July because it is the time tests and examinations have been given. The purpose of this award was to celebrate the success of students in examinations faced after struggling throughout the year. Various categories of awards were given to students who had successfully gained the best position in the class and the best gift for the subject.

On top of that, the main objective of this event is actually to give recognition to students who demonstrate excellence and performance improvement studies.

Council gives recognition for the success of all students beginning pre-school students through to year 6 students. Education Awards Day ceremony officiated by the Headmaster and accompanied by the Senior Assistant of student affairs.

Council got an overwhelming response from parents and guardians. In this ceremony, the parents were entertained by small children perform dances, and antiphonal choirs. There is a lucky draw game, yet to feel the excitement of the event. Parents and guardians also donated rations of food and refreshments.

5.4 Teachers Day

Next activity which is usually held every year is ‘Teachers Day ‘. This event usually held on 16th May every year as a tribute to teachers. On the day, teachers will be celebrated by the school community and also by the students. In Sekolah Rendah Convent school, there is a culture that has been practiced a long time ago when this special day arrive. Every teacher will wear a same colour of outfits on that day. Then, they will be escorted from the teacher’s room to the hall by students. On their way to the hall, their eyes will be covered by cloth and students will hold their hand and lead them to the hall. After arriving there, ceremony will be started. In this ceremony, teachers will sing ‘Kami Guru Malaysia’ song and also continued with speeches by headmaster and teachers. There are also games for teachers and also performances by students.

The objective of this event is to emphasize the role of teachers in nation building, national development and community service. On this day, students also will have the opportunities to give presents and appreciations to their favourite teachers.

5.5 Election Day

The fifth activity which is important to the school function is Election Day (Hari Perlantikan Jawatan). This ceremony is important to give recognition to the Prefect School / Monitor / Assistant Head Class towards the implementation of responsibilities which entrusted by the school council.

School prefects, monitor and assistant class are a respected group of students at the school. They are the chosen students who have good skills and excellence of the academic aspect, personality and curriculum. They also become the role models to other students. On top of that, the school also hopes that the shouldered position can train these students become effective leaders and be responsible and also to provide exposure of the challenges of life in future. Not only that, it is also to ensure these appointed students to be constantly motivated and confident with the position given. Due to this, the Appointment Day is held as a sign of the recognition of the committee.

6.0 Activity in Class

6.1 Convent F.M

There are also activities in class which are related to the National Philosophy of Education (FPK). First, ‘Convent F.M’. This is actually similar to a ‘DJ Radio’ program which is held in the school’s library every year. This is one of the centres of attractions to make students come to the library. It involves students between standard 4 to standard 6. This “DJ Radio’ program is not only in English language but also in Malay, Chinese and Arabian. There are also some days which discussing about Mathematics and Science subjects.

The purposes of this program is to produce students who can communicate effectively, polish the student talents, build confidence in students facing the audience, increase vocabulary in English, Malay, Arabic and Chinese language and also increase knowledge in Science and technology. To train these students, a real ‘DJ Radio’ will be practiced in class. They will pick up a topic and become the host of the day to discuss the topic in front of the class. After a lot of practices, they will be ready to be the real ‘DJ’ in library and applying what they learn from their teachers in classroom. The best ‘DJ’ will be awarded with prizes.

This program also are fully supported by the students’ parents as it’s rarely be found in other school and through this activity, they could see their children’s potential and credibility.

6.2 Minggu Bahasa

Next is ‘Minggu Bahasa’. This program is actually for the celebration of ‘Bulan Bahasa Kebangsaan’ which means to unearth the talent of the students to be highlighted especially in the level of school, region, district, state and national. This could indirectly produce students to be courageous and confident with their own abilities.

The individual targeted for this activity are all students from Standard 1 to 6. Among the contents which are prepared throughout this week are Story Telling Competition, Pantun, Youth Forum Competition and Debate Competition. These students will be practiced in class by teachers and the selected students will represent their classes to join the competitions. Prizes will be given to the winners in each competition to make them feel interested to join these competitions.

With the availability of this month, students will understand and love the Bahasa Melayu as an important language and should be learned in depth. Not only that, this program also is to provide an opportunity for students to express their talents, test the students’ understanding of their knowledge related to Bahasa Melayu, encourage them to compete in a healthy way to get the best place, particularly in relation to language and produce students who are competent in the field of language.

6.3 Reading Corner

Reading Corner is also practiced in each classroom in this school in order to generate a learning culture among students in the class. The concept of this ‘Reading Corner’ once popularized by the library which currently become the source of information networks to access, collect, acquire and interpret knowledge among students. Reading center is a place for students to find information as well as to facilitate students to develop knowledge by using each of the services and facilities provided to improve achievement among them. The materials available here are reference books, magazines, photocopy materials and general brochures provided by teachers and students. The existence of this reading corner make students use every resource center to the maximum level even without visiting the library.

The existence of the reading corner in the classroom is an effort to guide the students to interact with their peers. This will help to master students in the field of communication. The students can use reading corner for discussions on completing the process of teaching and learning by teachers. Therefore, most students will seek completion of the tasks given by the standa


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