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How Motivational Theories Are Used In Asda

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Commerce
Wordcount: 4095 words Published: 4th May 2017

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The main intention of this project is to explore how motivational theories applied in Asda to induce its staffs to carry out their best to the organization.

The reason why I selected the above theme is, as an employer at the Asda sometimes I wonder how all the works are going well and smoothly. Then I found the answer for my question, which is all because of the motivational techniques used by the Asda. And the other reason is, I can able to collect use full primary data, from my Managers and colleagues, and from the customers via primary research and secondary data like company reports, articles and company journals directly. Since I had a limited time I thought it will be help full, if I selected the company where am working.


Since motivation is important in the productivity of employees, the importance of knowing what motivation theory is most effective and efficient that could generate higher productivity, commitment and satisfaction to employees is significant as a problem of this study.

Literature Review:

Motivation is a one word, which leads success for all the organization around the world. Many theorists talked many about this. Especially Mitchell (1982), who given common characteristics to motivation, Taylor, F. W, and Harper and Row (1947) supposed in financial desires in inspiration, but Motivation is the “driving force which fulfils needs” according to Lam & Tang, 2003. Similar to this there are many theorist suggested their view towards motivation. They are Wilbert Scheer (1979), Thwala & Monese, n. D, Robin DeCenzo (1995:271), Campbell and Pritchard (1976)

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Motivation plays a central role in getting and satisfying the goals and objectives of a business by trying to motivate, inspire, and raising their satisfaction and self-esteem with the intention of be greatly creative that in turn will direct to completion of organization’s goals. Though all doesn’t know about the theories these are ineffective, but will help to identify the incorrect ways of motivation.


I would like to achieve the aims, which are stated below through conducting this research:

Evaluating the techniques made by the Asda to motivate Customer service Assistance and Managers.

Analyzing whether the employees are motivated by those techniques.

Investigating whether customer gained good service through those techniques.

Identifying advantages gained through those techniques to the Organization.

Suggesting some techniques to the Organization.


This analysis mainly used both the Primary and secondary researches equally. Though according to the title uses of primary data should be more compare to the Secondary, but due to the limited sources and time secondary research also conducted relatively equal with other. In both its major two types are used while conducting collecting the data. This case analysis will operate on the idea that the use of classic motivational theory of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and the Total theory at the organization. Since, a case analysis will be in understanding the role of motivation to employees’ productivity, the use of qualitative and quantitative approaches will be utilized.

Action Plan:

Preparing the proposal by 20th February

Completing Literature review by 01th march

Completing Field work

Primary Data by 17th march

Secondary Data by 28th march

Analysing the collected data and the result by 28th April

Presenting the data collected and the final report by 05th may

Code of ethics:

This case study conducted without any age restriction, gender, employee position and ethnic group’s boundaries. All of the staffs are shift basis have involved in this study.

While collecting data and after collecting secrecy maintained throughout the study of the investigation.

Literature Review

Motivation in Organization

The word Motivation this will be the success behind all the succeeded organization. Managers use mostly motivational theories commonly, to encourage their employees to get a good out put from them. Motivation, which is vast, issue, hence there are many theories are stated. In order to maximize the employee’s effectiveness and increase the productivity; managers using these theories even without knowing it. However these theories are applied all over the place from small business to multi billion business.

Motivation and Its Theories

Motivation directs individual behavior. It is in the interest of an employer to know how to motivate employees’ behavior for the employers’ benefit.

The four most Common Motivational Characteristics Definitions, which are stated by Mitchell (1982), are:

Motivation is:

Type defied as individual phenomenon.

Described usually as intentional


Helps to predict the behavior

Motivation is the “driving force within individuals that drive them physiologically and psychologically to pursue one or more goals to fulfil their needs or expectations (Lam & Tang: 2003). For Wilbert Scheer (1979), “To maintain [motivation] it is to create and maintain the climate which brings harmony and equilibrium into the entire work group for the benefit of all who are involved.” Since it is the work of a manager to employ effective motivation, he/she should always aware of the environment and the status condition of his/her employees. Furthermore, motivation means an inner wholesome desire to exert effort without the external stimulus of money. It is the ability of indoctrinating the personnel with a unity of purpose and maintaining a continuing, harmonious relationship among all people (Thwala & Monese, n. d).

Motivation plays a vital role in fulfilling goals, objectives of an firm by trying to motivate, inspire, and raising their satisfaction and self-esteem in order to be highly productive that in turn will lead to the fulfilment of organization’s goals and objectives. Thus to Robin DeCenzo (1995:271), cited by Thwala and Monese, motivation is “the willingness to exert high level of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.” While Campbell and Pritchard (1976), defines motivation as a dependent and independent set of relationships, which explains the amplitude, direction, and persistence of a behaviour holding constant the effects of skills, aptitude, and understanding of a task and the constraints operating in the work environment.

The essential of knowing the character of motivation, principles and theories are all-important in order that inappropriate function of motivation can be presumed and avoided. Even so, all motivational theories and strategies are valuable yet, not all can be applied in certain organization for some constraints.

There are many competing Theories, which attempt to explain motivation at work

Motivation Theories can be classified as follows:

Motivation is watched from various views. Taylor, F. W. Scientific Management, Harper and Row (1947) believed in economic needs in motivation. According to him motivation is nothing but what the workers wanted from their employers more than anything else is high wages. This approach is called Rational-Economic concept of motivation. But Nicola Horlick, (former Managing Director, Morgan Grenfell Investment Management.) He was convinced that the success of any business depended on having people and motivating them properly. As he thought and he decided motivation was not just about money. It was about creating an environment in which people enjoyed working.


In this research I have used both qualitative and quantitative methods of research. The use of qualitative research is comparatively less with the quantitative. The majority of the Qualitative data related to Theories and past studies of the motivational theories. The quantitative research applied to gather the information from the employees to find out what is motivation according to them.

Primary Research

In this research Primary data collection is important for the reason that the research includes the opinion of the staffs. Though there are many of techniques are used to collect raw data. I have selected some methods in field research when considering the resources and time.


The quantitative data is collected mostly from the questionnaire. Since I had a less amount of time to analyze the information, this type of data helped me more to manage the time.


Close ended questions like “How many?” and “Yes or No?” questions are used to collect the quantitative primary data.

This type of question is used to test observable fact. Though it is testing fact, it won’t develop the fact and give other suggestion of the responder.

The advantage of this method is, focus is concise and narrow, and hence which took a reduced amount time.


From the interviews and the brain storming discussion most of the raw qualitative information is pull together. Comparably the lesser amount of data is collected from the Questionnaire.


Interview took place with the employer, which lasted approximately eight minutes.

Interview is conducted in a limited time period in which responder might not have time to share the information. And also the responder is well known to the interviewer, where likeness of sharing the matter may differ.

Though the facts are collected directly the reliability of the data is high, we can guess and understand information if we didn’t get them, and also we can ask more to develop the task.

Brain Storming Discussion:

Common discussion took place regarding the topic in the break time during the break time in the organization where they don’t know that they are taking place in this study.

As an employee it is much easier to me to chat about the topic with the colleagues and to get the live feed from them while working. This approach is easier to me and reliable.

Although they are working together there will be a gap between the people individually who won’t speak openly with all. Though there are chances to collect unreliable information.


I observed the group twelve hours per week for two weeks, focusing mostly on conversations at monthly meetings and especially those conversations, which related to motivation and the awarding system issues.

Secondary Research

In this study, secondary research used to get the information mostly regarding to the organization. This research was done to collect already existing data that was collected by someone or by organization. I used both major categories of secondary research.

Internal secondary data

The sources of some secondary data that I collected came from within the organization; this type is called internal secondary data.

From the organisations department little information gathered from the own reports that represent a potential of valuable data from the line manager. For instance how to motivate employees.

These records were collected as an employee; otherwise this is not possible to others. Hence the records are reliable.

Although these were collected from the system these are depended in the employer whether it is applied or not. So from this we can’t measure the real out come.

External secondary data

The collected data which are published by other organization, or in other journal and website, few are collected from local library books are called as external secondary data.

From the several websites and other past researches the gathered are linking between these types.

Due to the IT revolutionised world it was easy to collect these categorised data in the given time and with minimum source. No need of wasting them by conducting the same research.

Though it easy and accessible. It may have been collected some time ago and there for sometime it won’t suit for the research. It can be general.

Action Plan

Action: Preparing the proposal

Methods for monitoring




Researching various topics and selecting final topic

Setting correct objectives.

Preparing sample plan.

Examining the key values of research.

Writing the sample proposal and discussing it with lecturer.

Finalising the Proposal.

To select the topic time taken bit more than considered time and also writing the Proposal.

Lack of knowledge in the selected topic.

3 day

1 day




Completing by 20th feb

Action: Completing Literature review

Methods for monitoring




Setting objectives that has to be searched.

According to the objective searching data in library books.

Searching data in journals and articles.

Analyzing the collected data

Preparing sample Literature review

Examining the sample literature review with the lecturer.

Correcting and finalising the Literature review.

Collecting the data in the predicted time is bit complicated

1 day

4 day




Completing by 1th march

Action: Field work (Primary Data)

Methods for monitoring




Observing the employees and colleagues.

Brain storming discussion.

Providing questionnaire and getting feedback.

Interviewing staffs

Completing field work

To get Questionnaire feed back, it took more time than the calculated time. (due to the staffs’ shift)

7 days

1 day

9 days

Completing by 17th march

Action: Field work (Secondary Data)

Methods for monitoring




Collecting the data within organization with the help of manager.

Collecting the data from the websites and from the past research.

Completing field work

Collecting information about the organisation within the organisation made difficult than expected.

7 days

2 day

2 days

Completing by 28th


Action: Analysing the collected data and the result.

Methods for monitoring




Gathering all primary data separating according to type.

Examining them and taking important points.

Exploring all the secondary data and taking points.

Grouping the data by type and writing Analysis report.

Discussing with lecturer and preparing final Analysis report.

After analyzing briefly giving a conclusion and result.

Gathering all questionnaires, sorting out them, and examining was tough

Some confusion came due to the language, while conducting interviews with staff.

3 days

2 day

2 days

2 days

1 day

1 day

Completing by 28th April

Action: Presenting the data collected and the final report.

Methods for monitoring




Structuring all the data, reports, bibliography, appendix, and tables.

Presenting whole project with the appropriate graphical presentation techniques (charts, smart arts, shapes).

Organizing all and presenting sample Project for lecturers’ consideration.

Discussing with lecturer and completing the final Research Project.

Submitting Research Project

There was a bit difficulty faced while getting all data together for structuring. Due to the various formation of structure

Structuring the data seized more periods than estimated.

3 days

2 day

2 days


Completing by 5th May


Time constraints of the semester require less time than may be ideal for an ethnographic study. By observing the organization for only a week, there are bounces to be aspects of leadership practice, organizational culture and team communication, which won’t be discovered in the observations. Being an outsider may also limit what is revealed to me. The team members may be guarded in their conversations around me, especially in my initial observations.


I am not observing multiple groups, although such comparisons might be important, in order to allocate more concentration of understanding regarding the group on which I will focus. Furthermore, I will not use structured interviews in order to minimize my obtrusiveness and my influence on the team members.

Code of Ethics

At all stages of investigation process, from beginning, resourcing, planning, analysis and dissemination, there was an active, individual and disciplinary ethical awareness maintained through out the case analysis.

All process of research including choice of methodology, and the use to which any findings might be put, is matching with the aims and the time and sources.

In the case of all those who are the subjects of research, but particularly those made open to by age, gender and the position.

In relation to every participant to the research process, including managers, colleagues, and employers, I dealt openly and fairly. In particular, as a duty I explained to the every participant of all features of the research that might be expected to influence willingness to participate, especially but not exclusively dependent on participation.

Only in cases where no alternative strategy is feasible, where no harm to the research subject can be foreseen and where the greater good is self-evidently served, are procedures involving deception or concealment permissible for social work and social care researchers.

I respected at all times the individual participant’s absolute right to decline to participate in or to withdraw from the program.

Consent must be secured through the use of language that is readily comprehensible to the subject and which accurately and adequately explains the purpose and the procedures to be followed.

All the data or other information gathered in this research is confidential and the secrecy maintained.


Primary Data Analysis

Questionnaire Analysis:

From the figure (I), we clearly get in to the point that majority of the employees are giving preferences to financial reward and pay-raise and acknowledgement which are 23 and 20 respectively. Maslows’ hierarchy of need (figure IV) state the needs of employees in an ascending order. According to hierarchy of needs the fist, second, and for some extend fourth levels can be satisfied by the financial reward, which evidently shown in this research.

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Though there are minimum amount of employees are rewarded, the desire to work in the organisation is still high, which clearly state us that public recognition, results, competition, status and sometimes-even fear also motivating employees. From the figure II, without any age restriction majority of the staffs are willing to do their best in the job, the majority is non-awarded person.

In the questionnaires given large amount of nearly all marked Yes to the question about their goals. This is the Goal theory, which is stated above. As an employee and from my observation goal theory is used more efficiently in the organisation.


The interview with the manager brought the information that they don’t know these motivational theories, but they knew the techniques and the principles. Most of them are guided by their area managers and asked to follow some techniques through them, which was made confidential by the organization. They were conducting monthly meeting and area manager used to assist the line manager during his visit to the store.

Brain Storming Discussion Analysis:

Brain storming which peel off few staffs’ worries. They are having a thought that rewarding system is only rewarded to the some section of staffs who are working in the cafeteria in the asda. Although they are accepting that they are having more scope to perform well.

Observation Analysis:

Observation reveals the truth that although the rewarding system is most favorable way, while they were talking they are interchanging their rewarded vouchers, and they are expecting to become a stars which is one of the valued system made byAsda.

Secondary Data Analysis

Internal Sources of Data:

There is a Staff Development Program (SDP) was undertaken by the Asda Colleague Circle. This will develop the personality of the staffs, when they are not performing there best and doing less in their work: they were personally asked to conduct manager and they used to guide them to do their best.

Performance appraisal program is conducted to increase the hourly paid employees’ salaries, for those who are working for the good standard and showing their brilliance at Asda. This will obviously make the employee to stay with the organization for lengthy period of time.

External Sources of Data:

The time when Andy Bond CEO of Asda, the company was in financially in a good position and the employee self-esteem was remarkably short. The company was experiencing losses, the CEO; he was faced with the daunting task of turning the rebellious company region. Simon consummated this task for three reasons: he modified:

The organizational culture

Possessed important leadership skills

Motivated employees’ skills.

In order to further motivate staffs of the changing image and the service that Asda is becoming physical changes are commencing to take shape all over at every Asda.

A program has in progress for now and it includes more than just the workforce but it is functioning. What in actual fact constructs this victorious at the member of staffs’ stage are the awareness by labours that their anxiety was addressed, it really triggers off them. In their division that they believe nearly each employee at Asda can express at least part of the Team. They may not all has it perfect but the company is slowly turning in this new direction

Result and Conclusion


Goal theories, Attribution theory, Equity theories of Motivation, Porter and Lawler Expectancy theory, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory are the major, numerous theories used at the “Asda” in order to encourage their staffs, which are successfully completed by the firm. All sort of employees exclusive of age, gender, and position are enjoying and doing there work with job satisfaction due to firms’ area managers, line managers and the assistance managers hidden motivational procedures, techniques, and principles (Theories).

Although the case study finalizing the theories functioned correctly and the result is positive that workers are inspired, happy, encouraged and over all motivated there are some restrictions are there, and also investigation carried out by a member of the employee hence the chances of liability is there between colleagues and managers: which are kept closed.


In conclusion, there are a number of theories used by Asda. Some of that are out dated, as I mentioned above, many area and line managers are using these techniques without knowing the theories. As a student and an employee after analyzing these information and situation managers should learn these theories and related principles in order to improve there staffs productivity and to apply and inspire them in the correct manner. And I would like to prefer them to study them and re-formulating them freshly to the new modernized 21st century and to bring them into play.


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