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Phytochemical Analysis of Abutilon Indicum

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Biology
Wordcount: 3334 words Published: 24th May 2018

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In spite of use of all available means of plant fortification, a propos 1/3 rd of the yearly harvested food commodities of the world is destroyed by the pests and the loss due to this is expected to be nearly 6000 corers per annum. Speedy along with effective organization of plant diseases in agriculture merchandise is usually achieved by the use of artificial pesticides and industrialization (Solaimalai et.al., 2004).

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However, the indiscriminate use of these chemical pesticides and modern technology have cause health hazard in humans and animals due to this outstanding toxicity. Pathovars of Xanthomonas are recognized to cause diseases on quite a lot of vegetables, cash crops as well as are reported to have developed resistance to Kanamycin, Pencillin, Streptomycin and Ampicillin (Verma et.al, 1989).There are some other micro-organisms which causes diseases in animals and human beings.

These cause various types of diseases and the treatment is costly for those diseases which are unavailable to the middle class members and tribal peoples as well as below poverty line people. For this motive, the people do not intended for clinics and has alternative treatment for these diseases by the local practionersy by means of of therapeutic plants. This is the aged technique imminent from past centuries of decades (Bruch, H, 1973).

Medicinal plants are various plants thought by some to have medicinal property, other than a small number of plants or their phytochemical constituents have been confirmed by means of thorough science or approved as a result of regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration or European Food Safety Authority to have therapeutic effects. Plants encompass evolve the capability to synthesize chemical compounds that assist them defend in opposition to attack from a wide variety of predators such as herbivorous, fungi, mammals and insects. By probability, a few of these compounds, at the same time as being toxic to plant predators, twirl out to have helpful personal property when use to care for human diseases. Such minor metabolites are extremely varied in structure; many are aromatic substance, the majority of which are phenols or their oxygen substituted derivative (Pal et.al. 2003).

Besides the production of plant major metabolites, plants are able to produce secondary metabolites like alkaloids, Flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, Reducing sugars, saponins, etc. These secondary metabolites can helpful in curing of the diseases by the tribal practioners (Nayak et.al. 2012).

Secondary metabolites are natural compounds so as to be not straightforwardly involved in the usual development, growth, reproduction. Unlike , primary metabolites absences of secondary metabolites does not result in instantaneous death, but somewhat in long time impairment of organisms, fecundity, survivability or possibly in no important change at all (Bartwal, A et.at., 2013). Secondary metabolites frequently restricted to a slender set of species with in a poly-genetic group. Secondary metabolites frequently play a significant role in plant defense alongside herbivory as well as additional inter species defenses. Humans utilize secondary metabolites as medicines, recreational drugs and flavorings.

The majority of the secondary metabolites of attention to human kind fit into category which classifies secondary metabolites based on their bio-synthetic foundation. Seeing as, derived metabolites often created by modified primary metabolite synthesis or substrates of primary metabolites derivation (Hadacek, F., 2002).

A micro-organism is a unicellular and lives in a gathering of cellular organisms. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek’s discern the micro organisms are very diverse; they include protists, fungi, archaea and bacteria, viruses etc. micro organisms lives in all parts of biosphere where there it water including soil, ocean floor, hot springs and sky-scraping in atmosphere. Micro organisms are critical to nutrient recycle in ecosystem (Beed et.al., 2011).

Micro organisms are used in traditional food and beverage preparation and some of the micro organisms are pathogenic, causing diseases so as to kill populace. In view of the fact that they invade as well as grow inside the organisms (Marriott et.al., 2006).

Abutilon indicum is also known as ‘ATIBALA’ in Sanskrit. Accurately, ‘ATI’ resources ‘very’ in addition to ‘BALA’ resources ‘powerful’ refer to the properties of the plant as extremely influential. In habitual system of medicine various plant parts such the same as flowers, leaves, bark, roots, seeds and stem has been used as anti-oxidant (Gaikwad, S. B., & Mohan, G. K., 2011).

A.indicum (Linn) sweet is a hairy herb commonly known as ‘Indian Mallow’ belonging to family ‘Malvaceae’. It is originated abundantly in the hotter parts of India but it occurs all over the sub tropica, tropica and Ceylon (Panda H, 2000; Chopra RN, 1956).

It grows as a weed and found abundantly in waste lands from sea shores along 1200 meters high in India in addition to sub-Himalayan tracts. The stem is round, tinged with purple colour. The leaves be 9 by means of 5 cm up to petiolate, acuminate, orbocullar-cordate to ovate and toothed (Sivarajan VV, 2004). Plant Flowers be solitary in elongated jointed and axillary pedicels. Calyx lobes split in the middle, apiculate. Corolla is orange or yellow, yellow opens in evening. Carpels are 15-20 in information. Fruits are Hispid, awns are erect and scarcely longer than calyx. Seeds are 3-5 ovoid, kidney shaped, tuberculated or with minutely stelleate, hair dark brown black,. Bark has feeble odor, bitter tastes and astringent (The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, 1990).


Collection of Plant material

Ethno medicinal survey was carried out during 2011 to document the precious indigenous health care practices prevalent among the different ethnic groups i.e., Khygal, Puttur, Tirumala, Tirupathi of Chittor district. The tribal’s belong to prehistoric or indigenous culture posses a good deal of information about medicinal utility and bio diversity. Indigenous health is concerned practioners make available low cost alternatives in the situation where the modern health care services are not available or too expensive.

The plant materials are collected from the forests of Chittor district of Andhra Pradesh. The plant be acknowledged by Dr. K. Madhava Chetty, Department of Botany, S.V.University, Tirupathi.

Preliminary Phyto-chemical screening of selected plant

Extraction Method

The selected plant parts were collected cleaned from soil and dust. The leaves, stem, flowers , fruits and seeds were separated and dried in shadow. The dried material was finely powdered, seived through muslin cloth and stored for chemical analysis, anatomical analysis of powdered drugs and for physico-chemical analysis. Fresh parts were stored in 70% alcohol. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening was performed by using plant extract according to Johnsen (1940), Gurr (1965), Harborne (1984), Edeogaet (2005) and Krishnaiah (2009).

  1. Alkaloid:

The alcoholic extract was evaporated to dryness and the residue was heated on a boiling water bath with a 2% hydrochloric acid. Subsequent to cooling, the blend is filtered and tested with a few drops of Mayer’s reagent. Then the samples were observed for the presence of turbidity or yellow precipitation.

  1. Glycoside:

In the direction of the solution of the extort in glacial acetic acid few drops of Ferric chloride and concentrated Sulphuric acid are added, and observed for a reddish brown coloration at the junction of two layers and the bluish green colour in the upper layer (Siddiqui and Ail, 1997).

  1. Reducing Sugar:

To 0.5 ml of extract solution 1 ml of water and 5-8 drops of Fehling’s solution was added and observed for brick red precipitation.

  1. Test for Tannins:

0.5 gm of powered sample of each plant is boiled in 20 ml of distilled water in a test tube and after that filtered. The filtration technique used at this point is the normal method, which includes a conical flask and a filter paper. 0.1% of FeCl3 is added to the filtered sample and observed for brownish green or a blue black tinge, which show the existence of tannins.

  1. Test for phlobatanins:

10 ml of aqueous extract of every plant sample is boiled with 1% HCl in a test tube or conical flask. If the sample of the plant carries phlobatanins, a deposition of a red precipitate will occur and indicate the presence of phlobatanins.

  1. Test for Saponins

2 gm of crushed sample of every plant is boiling jointly with 20 ml of distilled water in a water bath and filtered. 10 ml of the filtered sample is mixed with 5 ml of distilled water in a test tube and shaken vigorously to obtain a stable persistent froth; the frothing is then mixed with three drops of olive oil in addition to observed for the formation of emulsion, which indicate the presence of Saponins.

  1. Test for flavonoids

A small amount of drops of 1% NH3 solution be supplementary to the aqueous extort of every plant sample in a test tube. An yellow tinge be observed if flavonoids compound be current.

  1. Test for terpenoids

5 ml of aqueous extract of every plant sample is mixed with 2 ml of CHCl3 in a test tube. 3ml of concentrated H2SO4 carefully added to the mixture to figure a layer. A boundary by means of a reddish brown tinge is formed if terpenoids is present.

  1. Test for cardiac glycosides

1 ml of concentrated H2SO4 is prepared in a test tube. 5 ml of aqueous extract as of each plant test is mixed with 2 ml of glacial CH3COOH containing one drop of FeCl3. The over mixture be cautiously supplemented to the 1 ml of concentrated H2SO4, so that the concentrated H2SO4 is under the mixture. Condition cardiac glycoside be current in the test, a brown ring will be appear, presence of Cardiac Glycoside constituent.

  1. Test for Antraquinones

0.5 gm of the plant extract was boiled with 10 ml of concentrated H2SO4 and filtered. The filtrate was shaking; 5 ml of Chloroform is added. Chloroform is pipette out in another test tube and 1 ml of dilute Ammonia was supplemented. The resulting solution was observed for colour changes.


Preliminary Phytochemical Screening

The preliminary pytochemical screening of leaf of Abutilon indicum has been shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Phytochemical analysis of Abutilon indicum















Reducing sugars











Cardiac glycosides


In the early twentieth century, herbal medicine be key health care method as analgesics or antibiotics were not available (Raskin, I et.al. 2002). With evident of allopathic method of medication, herbal medicine progressively vanished its fame among people in addition to it was based on the quick remedial actions of synthetic drugs (Singh, A. 2007). Almost a century has passed and did witnessed limitations of allopathic scheme of medicine. Recently herbal medicine have achieve impetus with it is obvious from the fact that certain herbal remedies peaked at par with synthetic drugs (Yadav, S., & Sharma, V 2012).

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The folk practitioners also use this plant for curing blood dysentery, fever, allergy and also aphrodisiac. Bark is used in urinary complaints and is valued as a diuretic. Leaves are used as toothache, piles and all kinds of inflammation. Decoction of leaves is used in bronchitis, gonorrhea, inflammation of bladder and fevers. Seeds are tonic and unani systems of medicine suggest its uses in piles. Infusion of roots is used is used in fever as a cooling medicine and also in leprosy (kirtikar kr, 1991).

Leaves contain secondary metabolites as tannins, mucilage, traces of asparagin, organic acid and ash of leaves contain alkaline sulphates, magnesium phosphates and calcium carbonate (Panda H, 2000). Leaves also contain alkaloids, sterols, titerpenoids, glycosides, essential oils as well as various amino acids.

Roots contain asparagin, Gallic acid. Bhattacharjee reported presence of sterols, terpenoids, terpens, flavonoids and steroids (Bhattacharjee 1969).

Two sesquiterene lactones i.e., alantolatone and isoalantolatone have been first time reported by Sharma et.al (Sharma PV, 1989).

Seeds contain water soluble Galactomannan which contains D-galactose and D-mannose in 2:3 ratios (Singh V, 1997).


Priliminary studies of A.indicum have shown Flavinoids, Tannins and Saponins. Further isolation and purification of the phyto compounds has to be conducted.


The author likes to thank School of IT, JNT University Hyderabad and S.V. University for providing lab support.


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