Modern architecture encompasses the implementation of novel technologies to design architectural styles. The rise of modernism is facilitated by the relationship between the internal arrangement and the rational outward countenance. Modern architecture rejects the outdated ideologies of ornament and advocates for minimalism. The incorporation of space in between layers illuminates the interior-exterior connection in modern architectural designs. Based on the primary configuration and plan of architectural design, modern architectures utilize a building's interior as a reflection of the overall external topology (Blake, 1996). The article will unequivocally enumerate the analysis of Villa Savoye, a modernist Villa in France, to elucidate its internal arrangement and the consequent effect on the external appearance of the Villa.
Remarkably, the Swiss architect Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret designed the plan for the Villa Savoye, which was then built in Poissy in France around 1929 with the utilization of armor-plated concrete, making it a modernist architectural building. The building was constructed using the principle of 'five points' suggested by Le Corbusier for new construction. Today, Villa Savoye is regarded as the most outstanding work and world heritage to the modern architectural society. The Villa Savoye building has a unique design that composes symbolic points embodied in architectural aesthetics (Blake, 1996). The designation is such that ground-level pilotis support is applied to raise the structure providing a garden beneath and a space in between from the earth surface. A well-designed roof is included, which recovers the building's landscape; it purposely serves as a garden and verandah. In order of allowance for free wall placement, a floor plan empty load-bearing walls is set where artistically needed. The sequence of lengthy horizontal windows achieves illumination and ventilation. Designed facades are used in the construction, acting as a skin for the walls and windows unconfined by load-bearing.
Technically, Le Corbusier designed the four sides of the Villa Savoye, accounting for the sun's view and angle. The main entrance hall was positioned on the ground floor with the incline and stairs; he further situated the chauffeur rooms, maid, and garage at the same level. The unique designed plan contained master, son's and guest bedrooms, external walkways, galley, and salon on the first floor. The directional pointing of the salon, terrace, kitchen, and the son's bedroom was differently situated (Blake, 1996). A series of sculpted spaces was fixed on the second floor, which formed a solarium. The plan applied used the Golden section's fundamental ratios where a division into sixteen equal parts from a square was made with an extension on two edges to join the facades bulging on the sides. The further division of the courts established a site to fix the ramp and an entrance. The ramp illuminates all the four columns in the lobby, continues to the first-floor balcony, living area to the second-floor solarium, and can be seen from all house angles.
Additionally, Le Corbusier's introduced flush with a face of the façade on the two elongated elevations, which indicated heaviness and support. The shorter sides were planned on the emphasizes providing a detached effect of the house's horizontal dimension. The first flow terrace has a wide strip window, two baby piloti for support, and reinforcing the barricade above. The piloti and the more gigantic columns are in a parallel plane (Blake, 1996). A false perspective from outside the house is noticed, which gives the piloti a more profound impression within the home than their real position. Timber windows are used in the Villa Savoye instead of the metal ones. Specifically, it uses horizontal ribbon windows to suggest that Le Corbusier had an interest in glass because its planar nature characterizes it. Furthermore, the facade could be seen as a sequence of similar planes on the glass's setback spot in the wooden frame. Le Corbusier also treated the house terrace as a wall-less room replicating his yearning to incorporate the landscape and architecture.
Le Corbusier used the green paint on the first floor walls to moderate the seeming house view like a floating box on slender columns. The Villa's Savoye indoors and outdoors spaces were integrated to allow for alfresco enjoyment. In the sense of a machine, the house's designation was deliberately to maximize freedom in the machine era.
Notably, the interior design arrangement of the Villa Savoye has a great impression of the logical external expression. The ramp can be seen ubiquitously from the house; visitors from outside entering the house find their way in with the lead of the lamp's illumination. The glass and white-walled entrance allow for clear visualization from the outside, displaying the household's beauty and setting (Blake, 1996). The four columns are in a strategic locus, which appears to direct the way from outside towards the double flight ramp. The stairs are in a spiral pattern on the way up through the center of the building. The stairs' designed shape occupies a large space from the inside of the house, which exteriorly contributes to the widening form of the building.
The diverse maneuvering pointing of the kitchen, living room, terrace, and salon significantly lead from the external view of the structure's typical setting. The living room, branded by an unbroken space with an area of 925.7 square feet, has enormous, glazed panels opening out to the garden terrace; this clarifies the living room from the outside even for the visitors. The garage is laid out at an angle of 45 degrees and can accommodate up to three cars; it matches a vehicle's turning circle (Blake, 1996). The hanging garden, a raised garden from the ground level about 3.5m or (11.5 ft.) above, allows the entire landscape survey.
The solarium, from which the guest back down to the entrance hall via sloping the spiral staircase, is located at the top of the house, which offers an excellent view from the Villa's exterior setting with the nature that environs it. The ramp's culmination at the solarium adds a distinctive beauty from an external perspective (Blake, 1996). The color of the Villa Savoye is mostly white to display a shiny acuity from the exterior upon sun reflection. The garage and servant stations' two flank walls are dark green painted, which identifies with the surrounding meadow.
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The Villa organization was set with ideals levels. The lower level by the slender columns' support and the green paintings made the house's appearance mutable on the forested depiction background. Moreover, the curved glass façade formed a large volume of space on the lower level, shaping the underneath to the garage (Blake, 1996). The ribbon windows with stark, white façade and sliding glass walls typically express the exterior view's perception to the observer.
Markedly, the design of the internal structural arrangement of the Villa Savoye has led to its conspicuous logic exterior appearance. The elements of the column and walls of Villa Savoye are the key regulating elements and guide to the external organization. The overall layering is accentuated by the straight linear bars organized orthogonally and the columns and wall configuration (Blake, 1996). Planar manipulation led to the animation of the internal volume of the Villa Savoye. Besides, the openness of the interior double volume and the outer skin are segregated from the columns by horizontal planes, consequently delimiting the available space.
Modernism suggests that the interior of a building should be designed to provide a logical expression to the outside. The exterior of a building can reflect the interior of the building. Architectures refer the modernism as designing buildings from inside out. Large windows are recommended to allow the penetration of light penetration concerning the outside orientation and the windows' landscape view (Wilk, 2006). One of the major principles of modern architecture is the maximum utilization of natural light, and thus, in addition to windows, the roof should be installed with roof lights. Priority should be accorded to the main rooms. Room relationships define the natural circulation concerning the available internal space through the utilization of hallways. The lobbies minimize the distance navigated from room to room.
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Additionally, the usage of the internal space you have defines the overall external appearance by balancing the living spaces with other rooms. The architecture designs a plan through the consideration of the room requirements. The homeowners' lifestyle and taste facilitate the provision of spaces for fixtures and various activities. Indoors and outdoors should have a seamless transition (Wilk, 2006). Besides, the garden view's invitation at every turn is achieved through stylish outdoor directed towards stunning pool oasis and strategically installed windows. The usage of concrete bulwarks in the interior and travertine limestone portrays a contemporary style building. The combination of the features provides a harmonious atmosphere to the viewer. Finally, the determination of room sizes is complete; the total area can be estimated as the floor plan where the floor elevations' projection leads to a perfect outside expression.
Considering whether the interior should be secondary to the exterior, the architecture needs to evaluate the spaces allowed for the interior design. When secondary elements of a building are altered, fewer changes are encountered in the building's outward expression (Wilk, 2006). Primary properties encompass the aspects that, when slightly altered, prodigiously impact the overall building's external appearance; therefore, the interior space is considered secondary due to its influence on the outward expression, however small.
The Interior spaces representation is of particular concern in the interior design of a building. The degree of the interior space is determined by using orthographic drawing techniques and the potential quality of the peoples' movements. The extent of interior space in a building is ensconced by the architect himself in his peculiar room. The representation of space lies in his own work in reflection to graphic elements such as nestled elevations, modules, plans to the sheet of paper, divisions, and the facades (Jackson, 1. The space is useful to those who design and consider it in their plans; it is used to give the programs' locus of objections. The conceived space is assumed to be factual by the architect who makes it even though it's geometrical.
The interior space is also used as an intermediate, creating a link between the surrounding and the building. The rooms further give a unique impression of the people's spatial continuity and adapt themselves to the spaces. The balances of pressure between inside and outside the building are made possible with the interior space usage. Besides, the interior spaces are used to regulate airflow inside the building and provide space for light travel to illuminate the inside structure by the light (Jackson, 1994). The interior space is used to offer an expanse for interior decoration. Decorations in the cosmos make the inside of a building to feel calm, comfortable, and dramatic. A room for communication is provided by the interior space making it possible for effective communication within the building structure.
Furthermore, the interior spaces form the foundation of a building. Strategic planning and utilization of the space ensure that the limited space available is adequate for the required internal design. The design functionality and perspective determines the utilization of the three-dimension space. According to the client's specific needs, various spaces will be used for different equipment (Jackson, 1994). The overall requirement is the avoidance of overcrowding of equipment in a single area. Based on the interior style, the uses of the internal space of a building will vary. Besides, to shape a room, dynamic lines are used based on the structural design. Feelings of freedom and harmony are evoked by distinguishing features such as windows and doorways' vertical lines. Nevertheless, vertical lines should be used based on the use of the internal space to avoid uneasy feelings to the inhabitants. The shape of the room encompasses the various forms such as a closed or an open system.
Moreover, every interior space will have a varying light intensity based on the function of the room. Besides, light can have effects on the atmosphere's mood. Principally, the mood is majorly mediated by the color of the internal space. Psychological studies on the impact of paint on the mood based on the room's activities proved the critical role of color in emotions (Jackson, 1994). Our bodies naturally get stimulated both physically and psychologically and evoke memories and feelings due to a colorful internal space. Designers always create illusions on a smaller interior space to seem large due to the installation of brighter colors. Darker colors in interior spaces portray contrary, a powerful dimension to a larger area. Besides, the appeal of the client's internal distance is facilitated by pattern through the utilization of repeated designs such as wallpapers, pictorials, and even imprints of favorite animals and pets. Consideration of the internal space before pattern introduction is pivotal.
The interior space is often prioritized over the external expression for some architectural reasons following some principles in designing a building plan. The critical defining perception for prioritizing the interior space over the outward manifestation is the spatial perception. The spatial perception influences a crucial role for any building, space, or landscape; generally, any of these, when lack a comfortable sensation, is regarded as lacking spatial perception potential (Jackson, 1994). Aesthetic preference affects spatial perception and cognition; these have a significant effect on the interior and exterior environment on what we see and create opinions based on such about the domain's shape. According to the majority of views, the interior space provides comfort and is of more concern than the exterior.
The orientation issues connect with the spatial perception, which subsidizes the interior's prioritizing over the external expression. The manner in which a building or an outdoor space is oriented affects peoples' spatial perception. A particular design on a place can significantly affect the orientation of the peoples' views and completely disorient individuals in a lost direction. The day of the day influences the interior space's prioritization over the external expression with spatial perception. The shifting sun angles affect our choices and decisions in architectural works. The interior space with limited access to the day sunlight requires more art and decorations than the external (Jackson, 1994). The building structure's quality is based not only on the outside view but also on both the internal and the exterior space. Mostly, the interior space largely contributes to the overall view and the expression of the entire building.
The critical element in the work of architecture in designing and planning architectural works is based on the arrangement of interior design shaping the exterior's logical expression. Le Corbusier's work on the construction of the Villa Savoye is remembered as the most outstanding and exemplary architectural work in modern architecture (Jackson, 1994). The building's plan was set considering the changing world and to mark new designing methods. Villa Savoye's internal appearance creates an influence on the general impression of the exterior of the building. Le Corbusier applies the concept of prioritizing the interior space in setting his plan in the designation of the Villa. Regardless of scheming the building for private residence, intending to use it for family, he included a large open space in the interior and several unique features, which largely contributed to the external expression.
Furthermore, Le Corbusier considers the outside surrounding to match with his work in the building plan. The Villa Savoye is suited to a landscape with vast natural beauty. The Villa walls are painted green at the front view marching it with the forest at its location. The extent of interior spaces in architectural planning plays a critical role too and influences the external expression. The designer determines the interior space and the potential space required for the occupant's or peoples' movement. The interior space defines the occupant's comfort, stressfulness, and the freedom of their activities. Modern architectural design works under the relationship between the internal arrangement, and the exterior appearance merges the building structure's perception. The term spatial perception brings the connection in explaining the relationship between the interior and exterior design. The inside-outside building technique provides effective planning before the elevation of any building. Building designs currently prioritize the interior spaces over external expression (Jackson, 1994). Maximum utilization of the internal space yields a logical outward expression of a building, and hence it should be used as secondary to the exterior.
Blake, P., 1996. The master builders: Le Corbusier, Mies van der rohe, frank Lloyd wright. WW Norton & Company.
Jackson, L., and Jackson, L., 1994. Contemporary: Architecture and Interiors of the 1950s. Phaidon Press.
Wilk, C. ed., 2006. Modernism, 1914-1939: Designing a New World. V & A Publications.
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