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Theories and Models of Reflective Practice

Paper Type: Free Assignment Study Level: University / Undergraduate
Wordcount: 7852 words Published: 19th Jun 2019

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In this chapter I am going to analyse some of the range of theories, principles and models of reflective practice. According to Gould and Taylor, (2017, p.97), the theory is a supposition of facts. The principles are values and the models are based on theories. The areas of teaching that requires the theories, models and principles are a development of soft skills apart from hard skills such as interpersonal skills, rapport, empathy, and development in knowledge (Bruno and Dell’Aversana, 2017, p.14). The models used are to assess reflective teaching that is mentioned below. These models will assist me to identify the areas for improvement. For this purpose, the students and peer members remarks and written documents are considered.

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Reflective practice is the ability to reflect on my own actions to engage in the process of continuous learning. Reflection is an expression used to describe the act of thinking about events and it is one of my roles in my practice to reflect on whatever I do to improve. Reflection can be translated as consideration, thinking, meditation, study of what happened in the past. It can be based in much aspect such as accident or emotional feeling and many more. It is an essential part of my responsibility and a skill of being reflective. It also means that I learn from experiences both mistakes and success such as paying critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform everyday activities by investigating practice reflectively and submissively.

The reflective learning is also about identifying the self-confidence and skills for teaching. The range of theories, models as well as principles of reflective practice is considered. The research about these principles and models of reflective practice are conducted. One theory is selected to produce the reflective activities. The justification for reasons for chosen approach is offered with evidence. The two models of reflective practice are Kolb learning cycle and Honey and Mumford model (learning styles). The Kolb learning model is developed in 1984 by the David Kolb. The model promoted Kolb’s experiential learning theory and Kolb’s learning styles inventory. There are four distinct learning styles that are based on four-stage learning cycle. As per Neumann et al. (2017, p.20), the Kolb model works on four stage cycles such as concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, and there is four kind of definition of the learning styles such as diverging, assimilating, converging and accommodating.

Further, the brief description of learning styles reflects people who learn by feeling and watching consider things from the different perspective and they are generally sensitive. These people are known as diverging people because they perform better in those situations where the requirement is for the idea generation. The people in this category are having broad cultural interests and they are interested in gathering information.

Assimilating people are watching and thinking. These people need good and clean explanation. These general do well to understand the wide range information and to organise them in a logical order. These people are more interested in abstract thoughts. Converging kind of people are doing and thinking. These people can do well in solving the practical assignments. The accommodating people are relying on the intuition than the logic. These people tend to use the analysis of other people and prefer to adopt a practical approach.

The both two models are considered as Honey and Mumford. This model is a slight deviation from the Kolb model (Tan and Law, 2016, p.9). It considers having the experience and activists in stage one. It Reviews the experience and reflectors in stage 2 with style 2. In the third stage, a conclusion is drawn with the experience and the style is theorists. The stage fourth is planning the next step and the style is pragmatist. The activists are considered as activists, a reflector is considered as diverging, theorists are considered as assimilating and pragmatist is considered as converging. The strong relation between Kolb Model and Honey and Mumford model has a reason to choose these models.

The reflective practice is conducted to know the strengths and weaknesses and therefore I have chosen the Kolb model to understand what are my strengths and weaknesses in terms of teaching skills and knowledge development. The relevance of Kolb model is reflected by the importance offered by (Tuzovicet al. 2016, p.86) that reveals that it is the most cited source for the reflective practice. Kolb model has inspired many models such as Gibbs model and other models.

The principles of reflection reflect that focus is towards the practitioner and the practice of them. The next principle states that it allows using, providing value and learning from experience. It allows empowering learners to act based on the knowledge gained. It provides specific knowledge and valuable insights to resolve the problems. Principles I use are as follows: plan my sessions to identifying learning to apply to new experience which will help me to improve my practice as health and social care teacher and it also help me to plan activities for all the learners in my class in order to value the experience that my learner bring in their learning, encourage learners to set their own goals and to create a structured and conducive environment.

There are four main principles of reflective practices which could effectively use in our practice of reflection in learning and teaching. I will use John’s principles of reflective practices in my practice. This include commitment, challenge and support, caring and constructing personal knowledge in practice. 1.Commitment : This is a willingness to give yourself time and energy to something that you believe in, or a promise or firm decision to do something. With such determination and enthusiasm, one tend to stand firm in pursuing objectives (Belenky et al 1986 ). 2. Challenge and support:“This means that as teachers or learners, one is bound to face challenges which requires us not only to reflect but offer supports in the most dynamic and effective manner for the benefit of the learners” ( Coffield et al 2004 ). 3. Caring: This means that in order to deliver good teaching, one should manifest care, passion, proactivity and good relationship with learners in order make a more productive learning environment for learners hence make greater impact in the processing imparting knowledge to them. A teacher who is caring ensure that his learners achieve the objectives by offering every support for them (Coffield et al 2004 ). 4.Constructing personal knowledge in practice: This unravels the needs for teachers to develop their personal knowledge alongside or by the passage of time as they teach. The dynamic nature of legislations, science and technology or research, deemed it imperative for teachers to measure their knowledge and make any necessary adjustment as par the changes that are made on these legislations and scientific evolution that may affect knowledge or teaching. For example, the use of power point, computers, writing of dissertation/research Equality Act, Data protection are good examples of factors that influence teaching and learning that could  construct personal knowledge ( Anderson 2014 ).

As I mentioned above, I use Kolb’s reflective practice as a role model for my teaching. Therefore, the techniques I adopted to achieve my teaching objectives that are fit for purpose for my learners to achieve learning their outcomes in an inclusive environment include the following:

As a proactive teacher, my experience is the added value and inherent goodwill that enhanced my productivity. Do as specified in the Kolb’s model of reflective means I have enough experience as a teacher. Experience is a key factor in achieving the teaching practice. However, as a teacher I analyse my personal experience from time to time to ensure that I am up to date academically and informatively by using some techniques for reflective practices. There are various practices such as SWOT analysis, Scaffold questioning,

As a result, my Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) are regularly analysed. I use my strength such as my logical thinking from my health and social care activities to empower my learners; I teach them division, addition, subtraction which increases their problem-solving skills. I attend to my weakness such as Information and Computer technology (ICT) skills through training, attending seminars, also practicing weekly with my family to ensure that my learners are ICT experts.

The scaffolding questioning techniques are used for reflective practices to analyse my personal experience. The scaffold questions are based on the Bloom taxonomy and therefore this technique is chosen for the reflective practice. The role of a teacher in the organisation for memory and knowledge gain question is framed that what kinds of strengths are weaknesses are existing in my personality. The application that is applied and solves the issues question is framed such as asking the question ‘imagine my strengths are increased in terms of maintaining the quality in the class and providing insights about the content, how students can be benefitted?’

The synthesis or reconstruction is also practised with this. The question is asked about that if the strengths are only there and weaknesses are not found in my personality that what the outcome is for the students. The assessment or persuasion is also considered by the question such as how students can evaluate my strengths and weaknesses in percentages.

Systematic barriers to communication may exist in structures and organisations where there are inefficient or inappropriate information systems and communication channels, or where there is a lack of understanding of the roles and responsibilities for communication. I have employed the third method problem solving.

Learn and resolve problems and conflicts as they arise.  Learn how to be an effective mediator and negotiator. Use my listening skills to hear and understand both sides of any argument – encourage and facilitate people to talk to each other. I tried not to be biased or judgemental but instead ease the way for conflict resolution. Some communication scenarios are, by their nature, stressful. Stress can however be a major barrier to effective communication; all parties have try to remain calm and focused. Stay in tune with my own emotions to help enable me to understand the emotions of others. If appropriate, offer my personal viewpoint clearly and honestly to avoid confusion.  Bear in mind that some subjects might be taboo or too emotionally stressful for others to discuss.

The listening factor has been found important as the suggestions offered for effective listening. Active listening is proposed. Chenget al. (2016, p.12), propose five guidelines for effective listening. All these factors suggest that listening plays an active part in the classroom setting.

As sighted by Davis et al. (2016, July, p.208), listening is related to the effective communication. It is important to mention that feedback is crucial to make communication effective. The communication factor with feedback certainly enhances the role of listening and interpersonal communication.

It is found that my personality contains stereotype thinking and communication theorists propose that self-perception, distortion in a message, an unfavourable image of a sender, poor listening ability, role perception, ethnocentric ability are the causes for the failure in communication (Mirriahi et al. 2016, p.1083). For good communications, the communicator understands the ideas before communication and need to be mindful about communication as well as understands the non-verbal communication. All these factors are missing in my personality.

Therefore the focus is towards improving my listening skills and removing the stereotype thinking about certain people.

Task 2: As part of your Personal Learning Journal produce an individual statement to analyse how the development of wider skills can improve student motivation, confidence and achievement. Collect examples from practice to include in your teaching practice portfolio.

This part of my study explains what wider professional skills are, analyses how can my wider professional skills improve learner motivation, confidence and achievement, and how can my learners’ wider professional skills improve learner motivation, confidence and achievement basing my examples on my practice.

The development of wide skills analysis is conducted to improve the motivation, confidence and achievement of learners. The wider skills consider the professional skills and in this case I have considered how to communicate, assess, plan, be responsible, delivery of content, assessment and resources to use. The wider professional skills such as interpersonal skills, motivating skills, proactive and innovative approach, management skills, time management skills, negotiation skills are focused by me. I have concentrated to develop the wider skills set. The wider skills are developed by various strategies.

How can your wider professional skills improve learner motivation, confidence and achievement?

Motivating students is important—without it, teachers have no point of entry. But it is achievement that is critical, because the level of achievement over time is the vehicle through which classroom instruction influences student outcomes. For example, engagement with reading is directly related to reading achievement with sports, hobbies, work, or reading—results in opportunities to practice. Practice provides the opportunity to build skills and gain confidence. The reason I have been exploring different frameworks of wider skills is that I  believe that learners enable us to shed new light on the content of curriculums, both school and non school . Whereas it is easy to think of teaching, let us say, , when it comes to wider skills the pedagogical implications are more significant, yet harder to pin down.

Teacher administrative skills also give lot of confidence and motivation to the learners in the learning process. Administration have very vital factor in the teaching learning style which give the learners confidence and boost them to get achievements. Teaching someone to develop an enquiring mind or a resilient disposition is self-evidently more complex than explaining soil erosion or quadratic equations. Some of the organisations behind the frameworks I have been discussing have begun to consider the issue of the ease of learning these wider skills, and – to the extent that they are learnable – how best to develop them. Curriculum lists seven classroom strategies for cultivating wider skills derived from the research literature and, for each one, offers sensible guidance.

As a teachers I love to do time manage and this thing give my learners motivation and confidence how to manage the time. I always give my learners to setting open-ended challenges so that their confidence must boost up.  Making thinking important during my lecture I give enough time to my learners so that their thinking level will high to respond. As a teacher I always used to do Effective questioning to my learners so that they get motivation from tutor or teachers. I allow them to do independent learning so that they will get wider range of skills. Making connections. Similarly, create a supportive learning environment, encourage reflective thought and action enhance the relevance of new learning.

Interpersonal skills and Achievements. I may also find that my develop skills, knowledge or behaviours that I didn’t plan for, perhaps because new opportunities have come my way in my role. And don’t forget that development can happen in informal ways such as reading, networking and on the job training. It’s worth recording all of these on my Personal Development Plan too. In this way, my Personal Development Plan becomes a record of my ongoing growth and progression and celebrates my achievements.

Remember to make time to review my Personal Development Plan. As I complete learning, I need to start thinking about the process of planning my development again. My work context is evolving all the time and this inevitably means that my roles and priorities change, with a resulting impact on my development needs. i may also have career aspirations that will encourage me to think about my development needs. Developing yourself opens up new opportunities for both me and the college.

Negotiation skills. The language I select is a powerful indicator of the approach I am likely to adopt. Teaching implies that a largely intellectual transaction is going to take place between teacher and learner who knows about resilience and someone who is going to be taught to understand resilience. Yet there is all the difference in the world between understanding resilience and being resilient,. Being able to discuss moral dilemmas, and approve a considered course of action, for instance, has been shown not to predict the likelihood of making the same choice in real life. The language of training (and of ‘skill’ itself) conjures up a sense in which there must be a few key skills that can be easily practised and acquired in order to become more resilient. It invites the assumption that developing the disposition to ask questions, say, is the same kind of activity as developing the ability to take cuttings from a plant, or master a desktop publishing package. As I have previously argued, agreeing which ones are the most significant or important is, relatively speaking, the easy bit. Deciding how students are best going to acquire them is the tricky bit.

Cultivate confidence is the one that comes closest to what needs to take place when dealing with the wider skills for learning. The metaphor of cultivation confidence suggestions that the process of learning to be more resilient will be gradual and progressive. It will require the creation of a well-designed and conducive environment. This means creating a coherent culture in schools and classrooms that consistently invites, rewards and exemplifies the wider skills that are treated as desirable. Only a few of the frameworks have made much headway in describing what the most important cultural levers are, and how schools need to be adjusted accordingly.

How can your learners’ wider professional skills improve learner motivation, confidence and achievement?

Self-Confidence. As I discussed above here is also some key point for learner and teacher himself how he can develop the self – confidence from the learners . that is equally important as well as learners and teachers .Self-confidence is extremely important in almost every aspect of our lives, yet so many people struggle to find it. Sadly, this can be a vicious circle: people who lack self-confidence can find it difficult to become successful. After all, most people are reluctant to back a project that’s being pitched by someone who was nervous, fumbling, and overly apologetic. On the other hand, you might be persuaded by someone who speaks clearly, who holds his or her head high, who answers questions assuredly, and who readily admits when he or she does not know something. Confident people inspire confidence in others: their audience, their peers, their bosses, their customers, and their friends. And gaining the confidence of others is one of the key ways in which a self-confident person finds success. The good news is that self-confidence really can be learned and built on. And, whether you’re working on your own confidence or building the confidence of people around you, it’s well-worth the effort!

Strategic study skills. Bright learners always keep them above the strategic level so they can achievement the better performance. It also help the teachers to focus on their teaching . provide them  more confidence to get success.   Successful students take time to step back from their studies and examine what they are doing and how they are doing it. They may not spend any more time or effort on study and assignments than do their less successful peers, but their strategies help them make better use of their time and energy. This section introduces you to some ways of making your time as a student as successful as possible. Study skills vary between subject areas so if you move from, say, sociology to science you’ll need to give yourself time to develop the particular skills required. Understanding which skills are needed is important. If you find there is a specific skill that you need to develop – such as understanding graphs or making notes as you read – then make a decision to improve that skill and set aside the time to do so.

Numeracy Skills also gives good help to learners to achieve their goals. It also give them confidence and motivation to get their achievements.  Adults with poor numeracy skills are twice as likely to be unlike as those who enjoy some competency in numeracy.  Those adults with at least basic numeracy skills can expect to earn a quarter more than those who lack the necessary skills to solve basic mathematical problems. Furthermore they are less likely to be able to find or negotiate the best deals on financial products and therefore more likely to pay higher levels of interest on higher levels of debt.   It is well documented that debt problems can lead to stress and/or depression.  Between a third and a half of people with poor numeracy skills have a desire to improve them and less than 4% have actually attended any numeracy classes.

Analytical Thinking Skills any teachers and parents complain that today’s schools and textbooks do not teach learners how to think, but instead teach them what to think.  Preparing the learners for multiple choice questions actually discourages them from thinking outside of the box.  Teaching learners what to think instead of how to think is indoctrination, does not prepare them for unexpected real life situations, and makes them vulnerable to cults and propaganda.

Creative Skills In a small number of the schools visited, pupils’ personal development as creative learners was not matched by their progress in core academic skills such as literacy and numeracy. This happened where curriculum planning was not sufficiently well-rooted in the content and skills of the National Curriculum. The acquisition of basic skills remains of fundamental importance. The effective promotion of creative learning depended on the quality of leadership and management and on teachers’ subject knowledge being secure and extensive enough to support pupils’ enquiry, independent thinking and debate. Good professional development within the school was a key factor in helping teachers to encourage and assess creative approaches to learning and improve their subject knowledge. Externally produced resources and short training courses had limited impact without local training and continuing in-school support.

Participation skills .Within the literature of adult education a good deal of attention has been given to ‘non-participation’. Some of the reasons for this are pretty obvious as we have seen. The problem for researchers is that simply going up to people and asking them why they have not taken part in education projects and programmes does not necessarily tell us very much. For example, there is some evidence that people may be either embarrassed about their reasons e.g. around finance and literacy, or lack a detailed analysis concerning the operation of the system. In her discussion of education in the ‘developing world’, Graham-Brown (1991: 50) lists a series of filters, both within the educational system itself, and in the wider economy and society, which tend to reproduce existing social hierarchies. As she comments, these filters are of different types and intensities depending on the goals and character of particular governments and societies.

Task 3: As part of your Personal Development Record collect evidence from practice and produce an individual statement to report on the validity and reliability of data relating to your learners and the role of assessment and evaluation in the quality cycle. Explain your role in and contribution to the quality improvement and quality assurance in your organisation. (Unit 4 AC 5.1 and 5.2).

a. What is quality assurance and quality improvement?

b. What is your role in the quality improvement and quality assurance of your organisation?

c. Examine how assessment is monitored within the quality cycle, its purpose, the recording of it etc (add a paragraph on how you ensure that the data from your learners are valid).

This paragraph examines what quality assurance and quality improvement are in relation to my organisation and to me as a teacher. It explains what quality assurance and quality improvement do alongside my organisation.

According UNESCO (2017), Quality assurance is the systematic review of educational programmes to ensure that acceptable standards of education, scholarship and infrastructure are being maintained. (UNESCO, (2017).

As a member of my organisation it is my duty to ensure how I can ensure the quality in our institution. In this paragraph, I will discuss my roles in relation to quality assurance and quality improvement within my organisation by using the following: standardised pro forma, course view and observation scheme.

The standardised pro forma is used to maintain the quality assurance in the organisation. Staffs and students can understand the minimum standards for any work and by doing that they can maintain the minimum standard for quality. The second practice is the course review. The course review offered by the students and me as a teachers to assure that a minimum standard for quality assurance maintained. This determine the improvement of the course materials and also the skills of professionals to deliver results.

The third quality assurance technique is observation scheme. This is chosen to provide an opportunity for me as a teacher and learners to reflect on their practice. This is done to identify the good practices and for their dissemination. The academic staffs are engaged in critical discourse and self-reflection. The staff development support is offered with this technique. The evidence is found to improve the learning about the quality. The principles of practice this practice reflect that observation enables teaching people to identify the needs of improvement in teaching. This is considered while implementing the observation scheme. Another factor that is needed to be considered is the necessity of making the teaching observation collaborative and focused towards professional as well as supportive dialogues. The third factor is to conduct the observation scheme ethical, transparent, fair and consistent. This consideration may improve the quality assurance practices in an organisation.

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Quality improvement is practised with creating opportunities for personal development and for this, the students are inquired about the potential areas where they have interests to develop their skills. Similarly the best practices sharing are also adopted. I make sure that every person engages in sharing his or her thoughts to contribute for decision making.  For this, I have taken the assistance from my colleagues and students as well. I have chosen the mentoring program and followed a person that is known as the excellent orator. The staffs mentoring are considered as well as in-service training participation. The assessment is monitored by the quality circle. It is a participatory management technique that is used to assess the quality. The quality cycle starts with adoption, then comes energising, maturation, limitation and in last declining.

The quality assurance cycle I use in my organisation:


The importance of quality assurance and quality improvement is monitoring assessments. The two important tools for monitoring assessments are quality cycle and self-assessment. (Wilson, 2014)

I can as well use quality cycle for instance respond to student feedback to identify opportunities for change. Then, I check the outcomes by using staff or feedback from others to inform practice. Then, I act on the improvements required designed to help me remember the various stages of quality cycle which is a continuous assessment. Once there is a plan for the processes, then I plan to implement change and evaluate the plan for example, getting the right staff with correct skills and resources to monitor against the standards of what I want to be achieved.

I am more proactive and creative to ensure that I solve problems as they appear and before they escalate in my practice. The quality assurance cycle helps me to identify gaps for change by checking on the plan and the change is always measurable, timely with immediate effect. However, impact of change-self-assessment such as informal session and course evaluation is a very vital tool for quality cycle in connection to my practice. I therefore use the following tools for self-assessment: Informal session and course evaluation discussions with my learners, colleagues, peers, supervisors and other professionals to find out if the implementation was effective or there was a gap to fill for improve. I am also determined to make formal self-assessment review. It is indeed important that I make formal self-assessment review, which is basically the review of my personal self-assessment. This process will actually help me use relevant information that has been notified in order to be changed for a better insight of the subject that will be delivered to the learners.

IQA (Internal quality assurance), and EQA’s role (External quality assurance) responsible for quality assurance assessment and also maintaining it. In my organisation we have set the role of the IQA and EQA which is to make sure an informed judgement is set regarding the learning practice and decisions made by the assessment team to maintain standards. For example, information and data gathered can inform quality assurance about equality and diversity or health and safety policies. It also helps to measure learning effectiveness and appropriateness of the programme overall. As a teacher, I must ensure that learners’ original documents are valid, accurate, factual and legible whether stored manually or electronically by checking and photocopying them for evidence and keeping learners up-dated.

IQA’s and EQA’s role in maintaining quality in assessment. In my organisation we have set the role of the IQA and EQA which is to make sure an informed judgement is set regarding the learning practice and decisions made by the assessment team to maintain standards. In my learning organisation we have set the test which is designed to assess student’s learning which include Test-retest reliability it is a measure of reliability obtained by administering the same test twice over a period of time to a group of individuals. This test we can use against original documents as well as against standards.

In my learning organisation set the test which is designed to assess student’s learning which include Test-retest reliability it is a measure of reliability obtained by administering the same test twice over a period of time to a group of individuals. This test we can use against original documents as well as against standards.

Task 4: Plan-participate-record-evaluate a minimum of 20 hours of appropriate professional development opportunities that meet your development needs and improve your wider professional practice

PDP and CPD log

Alternative methods: recording through audio or video, professional discussion, group reflection using video and web2 technologies, blogs, wikis, professional learning networks, action learning sets approach or ‘video clubs’ approach, collaborative approaches, using self-video in own teaching.

Part B (1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4)

Task 5: Undertake research into theories, principles and models of learning that can be related to your area of practice, learners and subject.

Use this research to analyse those theories and models that can be related to your teaching, learning and assessment.

Task 6: Draw on examples taken from your teaching practice to help explain ways in which theories, principles and models of learning can be applied to your teaching, learning and assessment.

This chapter will discuss theories, principles and models of learning such as skills development (Gagne), scaffolding learning (Bruner/Vygotsky) how I can use them in learning.

The research conducted about the models and theories for learning are elaborated here. The learning theories are classical conditioning theory, operant conditioning theory, Bandura social learning theory, cognitive theory, attribution theory, emotional intelligence model, cognitive dissonance theory, various nursing theory, stress management theory, . These theories are researched to know their impact on learning.  The Maslow need hierarchy theory is assistive in the learning of the new facts. Certainly, the learning of upper needs such as recognition and self-actualization needs of learners can assist me to understand what kind of learning strategies are to be practised.

Learning theory as operant conditioning is widespread in the organisation. The operant conditioning assumes that positive conduct is remunerated and negative conduct is admonished. One more theory is social learning that forms by preferences for the work. This theory assumes that people be trained from the collective context and the knowledge is aided by the observational knowledge, modelling and simulation. For this purpose, one scrutinises the workplaces norms approximately. Cognitive dissonance assumption considers that this happens when a condition engrosses conflicting attitudes, behaviours or beliefs that direct to altering of attitudes, behaviours and philosophy so that equilibrium can be recognised. The disagreement can be abridged in three ways. One way is to alter the attitude and philosophy, the second method is to obtain new information that may overshadow the discordant conviction and the third method is to reduce the consequence of philosophy and attitude (Beverborget al. 2017, p.93).

The examples that are taken from my teaching practice for explaining how the theories, principles and models of learning can be applied are mentioned here. The procedures verse the declarative knowledge theory is considered. Declarative knowledge considers that something is certain or it is conscious in nature. The knowledge about the linguistic form is declarative knowledge. The procedural knowledge considers how to do something. Therefore the procedure knowledge is considered by me for improvement. The theory of skill development Gagne is also practiced for learning. The theory of Gagne proposes that there should be five stages to be followed. The nine instructional events are reception, expectancy, retrieval, selective perception, semantic encoding, responding, reinforcement, retrieval and generalization and these events are considered for learning.

I am going to talk about scaffolding learning Vygotsky constructivist theory and Bruner social constructivist theory. These two theories can be linked to constructivist model. In my practice, I use the scaffolding learning to teach which helps for solving problems.

Bruner as a constructivist acknowledged 3 stages of cognitive image. Enactive, is the representation of knowledge through actions. Iconic, is the visual summarization of images. Symbolic representation is the use of words and other symbols to describe experiences (Bruner, 1960) Vygotsky theories indicate the important role of social interaction in the development of cognition because he powerfully believes that community plays a central role in the process of making meaning.

Vygotsky’s theory implies that the challenge for all teachers is to pose problems that most students are not able to do so, in other words it includes competency based education that students can learn problem-solving skills through their own-way of thinking, but to support those who are not ready for the level of independent problem solving required by the task. One way to support this development is through scaffolding, which involves structuring the ideas to be understood in an order that is likely to lead learners to develop further and faster than they would on their own (Bruner, 1996). By introducing words, ideas and learning activities in a logical order, the teacher draws on what he or she knows the learner can do, gradually building bridges. Planning for such a process involves imagining a learning trajectory, and this is the basis of lesson planning. Even very open-ended inquiry-based lessons have starting points and target learning objectives where the aim is to teach different aspects of subjects.

As a teacher I use a range of scaffolding practices that support learners in their learning process. This supports me to make more informed decisions about how I can meet the learning needs of all learners in the most appropriate way possible.

The Rogers learning models is adopted for learning that is the person centred approach.

In this chapter, I will explore models of learning preferences The Honey and Mumphord model in connection to my teaching and learning.The Honey and Mumphord model is considered for learning preferences. The Gardner model is also considered for this purpose. The multiple intelligence theory describes that there are seven ways people can understand the subject. The linguistic features are considered by me. The inductive and deductive thinking and abilities of reasoning and logic as well as abstract patter recognition are focused by me. I have used the visual spatial skills and develop them for learning. The kinaesthetic and rhythmic features are also taken into account. Interpersonal and intrapersonal features are also focused for learning.

Therefore, to enable me to analyse my learners’ learning styles, I use various tests available on the internet although some are adaptions rather than the genuine learning preferences analyses. Therefore, as a teacher, I am very proactive and clever, to organise my sessions for my learners wisely after the initial assessment. I ensure that I create an inclusive environment, use learner-centred approach, have resources in place to accommodate my learners’ needs and carter for their learning styles as required by developing teacher’s personal theories of learning using individual learning plans focused learning outcomes because thought out outcomes give structures to discussions, activities and assessment with better clarity.

Coffield et al critique of learning styles is basically expressed by the way of systematic and critical review. I use this learning style to critically check whatever lessons I have previously delivered. However, this model helps me in setting my Individual Learning Plans with my learners in a way that I critically review my previous lessons and from there, I have the opportunity to make specific amendments and adjustments to effectively frame the figure of the following lesson.

Application of theories, models and principles of learning in my teaching practice

The Individual Learning Plan drawn aims at achieving those outcomes or objectives as I follow the learner-centred approach. I ensure that the objectives aimed at are smart targets, are timely such as every 3 months, they are relevant to the outcomes, to engage the learners to focus, draw action plans on how to achieve those targets as it provides a systematic way for me to review and discussion with my learners every-now and again for the improvement of my learners and me as a teacher. Meta cognitive strategies include the learners thinking as well as their physical actions which in other words could be included as SMART targets, Some of the most common meta cognitive strategies come in the form of mnemonics which are meaningful words where the letters in the word each stand for a step in a problem-solving process or for important pieces of information about a particular topic of interest.

In the section below I will explain how I use the models of learning Preferences

Introduce alternative learning approaches. As a teacher, I consider introducing alternative teaching and learning approaches, I keep in mind that learners learning depends primarily on what the learners do, both in and out of classroom, rather than what the teacher does. My duty is to select activities through which learners can learn the course-objectives. Other way could be helpful through lectures, discussions, written-exercises, coursework assignments, tests, group-work, and other kinds of experiences which may be necessary for learners to learn the things. My choice of strategies is affected by a number of considerations: the level of the objectives, the abilities, my teaching skills and preferences, and number of learners. In my learning organisation, we make sure to help learners to sharpen their thinking skills, and strategies to promote active involvement in learning.

I apply the use of constructivist approaches such as card sorts, graphic organisers to enable some of my learners learn through their preferred styles where possible. It is also a great idea that I use response to learning preferences such as using the importance of multisensory approach to engage all my learners where they can use all their senses to develop a range of learning strategies to motivate and encourage my learners to take ownership of their learning. This type of learning involves many senses within the same activity such as visual, I use videos because these types of learners learn best and prefer observation more than talking or acting.

It is actually a great tool for me, as it allows me rooms of improvement in terms of the quality of my lessons, bearing in mind that I always make efforts to maintain the quality assurance that is required for my practice.

Applied use of constructivist approaches. Constructivist approach focuses attention on how people learn. It suggests that teaching knowledge results from people forming models in response to the questions and challenges that come from actively engaging learners with problems and environments – not from simply taking information, nor as merely the blossoming of an innate gift. The challenge in teaching is to create experiences that engage learners and support his or her explanation, evaluation, communication, and application of the specific models needed to make sense of their experiences.

Our background research in group activity in class:

John B. Watson was a pioneering figure in the development of the psychological school of behaviorism. Learn how the discipline of behaviourism started and how it has profoundly changed the way we live our lives in the modern era.

Edward Thorndike  is famous in psychology for his work on learning theory that lead to the development of operant conditioning within behaviorism put forward a “Law of effect” which stated that any behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated, and any behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is likely to be stopped.

Further extended Pavlov’s work and applied it to human beings.  In 1921, Watson studied Albert, an 11 month old infant child. The goalof the study was to condition Albert to become afraid of a white rat by pairing the white rat by pairing the white rat with a very loud, jarring noise. Ivan Pavlov’s theory of classic conditioning had an impact on the understanding on the human behaviour.

B.F. Skinner is a behaviourist he developed a theory of operant conditioning – the idea that behaviour is determinate by its consequences be they reinforment or punishment which make or less likely that the behaviour will occur again.

Leonard Bernstein 2006:  wrote an article which is entitled psychologic as a view of all the behaviourist. As a result of it is used methods in analysis behaviour.

The Principles of Learning are a set of features that are present in classroom and schools when students are successful. They summarize decades of learning research. These theory and research-based statements form the foundation of the IFL’s work and are designed to help educators analyse and improve teaching and learning for all students.

Seven principles of learning, the foundation of a Principles-of-Learning Framework (Weibell, 2011), form the basis of this blog. these seven principles of learning and explore how the Principles-of-Learning Framework can be applied to a mass educational transformation that is now taking place in public education—toward student-centered, data-informed, teacher-led, personalized learning in the technology-enhanced, blended learning classroom.

Principle 1 – Potential. Humans are endowed with an inherent potential for increase in capacity, the establishment of habit, and the definition of being. Principle 2 – Target. Human potential may be channeled intentionally toward a specific, predetermined target of learning, or will otherwise follow incidentally from the conditions to which a person is subjected. Principle 3 – Change. Learning is a specific type of change, which is governed by principles of (a) repetition, (b) time, (c) step size, (d) sequence, (e) contrast, (f) significance, and (g) feedback. Principle 4 – Practice. Principles of change are activated and aligned with learning targets through models of practice, exercise, or experience. Principle 5 – Context. Learning is facilitated by a context of practice that is the same as, or accurately represents, the context of performance. Principle 6 – Engagement. Learners will often engage in certain activities as a matter of habit, though they are also influenced by their current capacity to engage, as well as factors of motivation and inhibition related to the activity as a whole, part of the activity, its circumstances, or its expected results. Principle 7 – Agency. Learners are not passive recipients of learning, but active


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